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Nicholas P. Klingaman
,
Delphis F. Levia
, and
Ethan E. Frost

1. Introduction The amount of precipitation intercepted and subsequently evaporated from a forest canopy is considerable, accounting for 29% of the incident precipitation at Plynlimon Forest, United Kingdom ( Calder 1990 ). Canopy interception is a critical component of a forest’s water budget, affecting the amount of water available to the understory and soil. The structural characteristics of the forest canopy reduce and spatially redistribute the overall water input to the underlying area

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Giulia Mazzotti
,
Johanna Malle
,
Sarah Barr
, and
Tobias Jonas

1. Introduction The three-dimensional structure of forest canopy largely controls the subcanopy radiation regime, masking the ground from shortwave radiation and enhancing the longwave radiation input ( Essery et al. 2008a ; Link et al. 2004 ; Lundquist et al. 2013 ; Sicart et al. 2004 ). Radiative fluxes are a key component of the subcanopy energy balance, dictating ecohydrological processes such as plant growth, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and snow cover dynamics ( Battaglia et al

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Jicheng Liu
,
Curtis E. Woodcock
,
Rae A. Melloh
,
Robert E. Davis
,
Ceretha McKenzie
, and
Thomas H. Painter

1. Introduction Snow, because of its unique properties such as high albedo and low thermal conductivity, affects land surface radiation budgets and water balance ( Yang et al. 1999 ). Significant gains have been made in snow cover mapping using remotely sensed data in recent decades, but the presence of forests continues to present challenges ( Simpson et al. 1998 ; Hall et al. 1998 ; Hall et al. 2002 ; Dozier and Painter 2004 ). An understanding of the manner in which forest canopies

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Shin’ichi Iida
,
Delphis F. Levia
,
Kazuki Nanko
,
Xinchao Sun
,
Takanori Shimizu
,
Koji Tamai
, and
Yoshinori Shinohara

: Rainfall interception loss by forest canopies. Forest Hydrology and Biogeochemistry , D. F. Levia D. Carlyle-Moses, and T. Tanaka, Eds., Ecological Studies, Vol. 216, Springer, 407–423, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-1363-5_20 . 10.1007/978-94-007-1363-5_20 Edwards , I. J. , W. D. Jackson , and P. M. Fleming , 1974 : Tipping bucket gauges for measuring runoff from experimental plots . Agric. Meteor. , 13 , 189 – 201 , https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-1571(74)90046-6 . 10

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Chuixiang Yi

complex and have not been adequately represented in models, causing poor environmental analysis and prognosis ( Massman and Weil 1999 ; Finnigan 2000 ). Canopy turbulent flows are characterized by two fundamental profiles ( Fig. 1 ): the S-shaped wind profile and the exponential Reynolds stress profile. The S-shaped wind profiles have been widely observed within forest canopies ( Baldocchi and Meyers 1988 ; Bergen 1971 ; Fischenich 1996 ; Fons 1940 ; Lalic and Mihailovic 2002 ; Landsberg and

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Ulrich Strasser
,
Michael Warscher
, and
Glen E. Liston

1. Introduction Pomeroy et al. (1998) report that interception by forest canopies can store up to 60% of the cumulative snowfall, resulting in a 30%–40% annual loss of snow cover in boreal coniferous forest environments. Because of the large surface-area-to-mass ratio of the coniferous canopy, and the fact that snow remaining in the canopy is exposed to a comparably dry and warm atmosphere, high rates of sublimation can occur, which are largely dependent on the residence time of intercepted

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John Pomeroy
,
Chad Ellis
,
Aled Rowlands
,
Richard Essery
,
Janet Hardy
,
Tim Link
,
Danny Marks
, and
Jean Emmanuel Sicart

variable in forested environments ( Link and Marks 1999 ; Hardy et al. 2004 ; Link et al. 2004 ). Therefore, it is the purpose of this paper to examine the variability of shortwave irradiance in coniferous forest environments during snowmelt to estimate the significance of this variability to snow-covered area depletion. A companion paper ( Essery et al. 2008 ) focuses on estimating the spatial distribution of shortwave transmission through coniferous canopies using remote sensing and explicit

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G. Hsi
and
J. H. Nath

592 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY VOLOa~9Wind Drag Within Simulated Forest Canopies G. Hsx~ AND J. H. NATH~Fluid Dynamics and Diffusion Lab., Colorado State University, Fort Collins 0VIanuscript received 1 December 1969, in revised form 6 April 1970)ABSTRACT The local drag coefficients, aerodynamic roughness and wind velocity profiles were studied for a simulatedtree-forest canopy. Furthermore

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Clare Webster
,
Nick Rutter
,
Franziska Zahner
, and
Tobias Jonas

influences of forest structure on subcanopy radiation dynamics across different-sized gaps in the canopy. In addition to the study by Stähli et al. (2009) , moving linear configurations have also been adopted by Black et al. (1991) , Chen et al. (1997) , Law et al. (2001) , Blanken et al. (2001) , and Vrugt et al. (2002) ; however, this method was only employed in warmer months when the rail and radiometer were not affected by icing and snowfall ( Link et al. 2004 ). While many different radiometer

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Shusen Wang

a thick canopy and bare soil. 3. Study site, observation data, and model experiment A boreal deciduous forest ecosystem located in the Prince Albert National Park (53.6°N, 106.2°W), Saskatchewan, Canada, was selected for the model application. This site is known as the Southern Old Aspen (SOA) site in the research programs of Boreal Ecosystem–Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), Boreal Ecosystem Research and Monitoring Sites (BERMS), and Fluxnet-Canada Research Network (FCRN). The vegetation is dominated

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