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Esther D. Mullens and Renee McPherson

1. Introduction Freezing precipitation is an infrequent but potentially damaging hazard in the south-central United States. The accretion of freezing rain on power lines, structures, and roadways during ice storms causes significant economic damage and travel disruption ( Call 2009 ). Ice storms in this region have resulted in hundreds of millions of dollars in damages over the past decade (e.g., Grout et al. 2012 ). During the winter of 2013/14, several cold air outbreaks in the southern

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Esther D. Mullens, Lance M. Leslie, and Peter J. Lamb

1. Introduction The southern Great Plains (SGP) of the United States is an area of diverse meteorological conditions. Winter months are typically mild (e.g., Johnson and Duchon 1995 ), but the region is known for infrequent yet significant winter storms that produce mixed-phase precipitation, including snow, ice pellets, and freezing rain (e.g., Changnon 2003 ; Grout et al. 2012 ). Ice pellets and freezing rain are classically associated with an elevated above-freezing inversion (“warm layer

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Ronald E. Stewart and Patrick King

1270 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUM~II5Freezing Precipitation in Winter Storms RONALD E. STEWART AND PATRICK KINGAtmospheric Environment Service. Downsview, Ontario(Manuscript received 21 February 1986, in final form 4 December 1986)ABSTRACT The mesoscale storm structure and the evolution ofpredpitation type are examined during freezing precipitation.episodes over southern Ontario. Precipitation

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Junhong Wang, Jerald Brotzge, Jacob Shultis, and Nathan Bain

/2 in. or more; 1 in. = 2.54 cm) ( NWS 2016 ). If the freezing rain was mixed with other precipitation types, then a “winter storm” event would be reported in the storm database. These events were not included in this analysis. Between 1997 and 2019, a total 46 ice storms were recorded in NYS in the NCEI database and impacted a cumulative 257 counties with a total $102 million in damages ( Fig. 1 ). They show coherent spatial structure with the highest frequency in the Eastern Plateau region ( Fig

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Kathleen F. Jones

communication are designed for ice loads and concurrent winds ( TIA 2019 ; ASCE 2020 ), they can still fail in severe freezing rain storms. Models of ice accretion on trees and infrastructure, for a forecast or observed freezing rain event, require, at the least, information on the precipitation type, precipitation rate, and wind speed. More realistic ice accretions can be obtained if there are also air and dewpoint temperature data and an estimate of shortwave radiation to determine the fraction of the

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Dana M. Tobin, Matthew R. Kumjian, and Alan W. Black

. For instance, Andrey et al. (2003) defined “snow” as inclusive of sleet and freezing rain. Additionally, “winter precipitation” has varying definitions: sleet, freezing rain, and snow ( Andrey et al. 2013 ); snow and sleet combined ( Black and Mote 2015a ); and two subcategories of snow and ice precipitation, the latter including sleet and freezing rain ( Black and Mote 2015b ). Similarly, some studies examine “all precipitation types” as the combination of rain, sleet, hail, and snow ( Ashley

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Julie M. Thériault and Ronald E. Stewart

1. Introduction Various precipitation types often occur during winter storms. These precipitation types include ice pellets and freezing rain as well as particles composed of both liquid and solid phases ( Table 1 ). Precipitation types containing liquid water (such as freezing rain and wet snow) can lead to catastrophic icing events when falling on subfreezing surfaces. One such example is the 1998 ice storm in the Montreal area and surrounding regions, the most catastrophic weather event in

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André Tremblay and Anna Glazer

1. Introduction Freezing precipitation 1 (rain and drizzle) poses a serious public safety problem and is a significant threat for virtually all forms of transportation. Ice storms are often winter’s worst hazards. In Canada, these storms are especially common in densely populated regions of Ontario and Quebec. The ice storm of January 1998 was the worst natural disaster to hit Canada in recent memory. Starting from 5 until 10 January 1998, precipitation, comprising mostly freezing rain and ice

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Jianhua Sun and Sixiong Zhao

1. Introduction Freezing precipitation, including freezing drizzle (FZDZ), freezing rain (FZRA), and ice pellets (IPE; Carrière et al. 2000 ; Bernstein 2000 ), is a major weather hazard that can cause severe socioeconomic losses. Surface ice accumulation can halt air and ground transportation, weigh down and snap power lines, severely damage trees, and it is also a potential serious risk to the safety and health of local residents in the influenced areas. Four stages of heavy snowfall and

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Nobuhiro Nagumo and Yasushi Fujiyoshi

of freezing by evaporative cooling 1) Numerical simulations One-dimensional simulations were performed to investigate the possibility of refreezing of raindrops under the observed environmental conditions. The simulation framework was based on Matsuo and Sasyo (1981a , b) . Since we focused on the temperature of precipitation particles T p just before freezing, we assumed that the melted particles remain liquid during cooling even when their temperatures were below 0°C. To consider vertical

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