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Aixue Hu, Bette L. Otto-Bliesner, Gerald A. Meehl, Weiqing Han, Carrie Morrill, Esther C. Brady, and Bruce Briegleb

been attributed to a pulse of glacier meltwater into the Atlantic (e.g., Rahmstorf 1995 , 1996 ; Clark et al. 2002 ; Clarke et al. 2003 ; Rahmstorf et al. 2005 ). Theoretical and modeling studies indicate that the Bering Strait may play an important role in the response of the THC to freshwater forcings added in the subpolar North Atlantic ( Shaffer and Bendtsen 1994 ; De Boer and Nof 2004a , b ; Hu and Meehl 2005a ; Hu et al. 2007a , hereafter H07 ). Presently, the Bering Strait is a

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B. Curry, C. M. Lee, and B. Petrie

volume, freshwater, and heat transports between the Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans. Variability in freshwater export through Davis Strait could impact North Atlantic deep convection (e.g., Våge et al. 2009 ), alter the strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation ( Holland et al. 2001 ), and affect western North Atlantic continental shelf ecosystems ( Greene et al. 2008 ). Davis Strait captures the CAA outflow after modification during its transit through Baffin Bay to the Labrador

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Cornelia Köberle and Rüdiger Gerdes

1. Introduction Relative to its surface area, the Arctic Ocean collects and stores a disproportionate amount of freshwater, mostly from runoff from the Siberian rivers that drain a large land surface area. Atlantic Ocean water flowing into the Arctic Ocean via the Barents Sea and Fram Strait is transformed into colder and fresher water that forms part of the return Atlantic water. Return Atlantic water is carried with the East Greenland Current (EGC) toward Denmark Strait. This water is an

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Marika M. Holland, Joel Finnis, and Mark C. Serreze

1. Introduction The hydrologic cycle of high northern latitudes is of significance because even small changes in the freshwater budget of the Arctic may influence ocean circulation, which can in turn affect the global climate ( Broecker 1997 ; Broecker et al. 1985 ). The primary freshwater inputs to the Arctic Ocean are river discharge, chiefly from the drainages of the Ob, Yenesei, Lena, and Mackenzie; an import of fairly low salinity water through the Bering Strait; and net precipitation

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Michael A. Rawlins, Michael Steele, Marika M. Holland, Jennifer C. Adam, Jessica E. Cherry, Jennifer A. Francis, Pavel Ya Groisman, Larry D. Hinzman, Thomas G. Huntington, Douglas L. Kane, John S. Kimball, Ron Kwok, Richard B. Lammers, Craig M. Lee, Dennis P. Lettenmaier, Kyle C. McDonald, Erika Podest, Jonathan W. Pundsack, Bert Rudels, Mark C. Serreze, Alexander Shiklomanov, Øystein Skagseth, Tara J. Troy, Charles J. Vörösmarty, Mark Wensnahan, Eric F. Wood, Rebecca Woodgate, Daqing Yang, Ke Zhang, and Tingjun Zhang

hydrologic cycle “intensification.” But what is meant by the term intensification and why do we expect these changes as a result of warming? Intensification is considered here to be an increase in the freshwater (FW) fluxes between the Arctic’s atmospheric, land, and ocean domains. Conceptually, intensification can be illustrated by an arrow connecting two boxes in a schematic diagram, where the boxes represent stocks of water in these domains (e.g., see Fig. 4 in Serreze et al. 2006 ). For any given

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Tajdarul H. Syed, James S. Famiglietti, and Don P. Chambers

1. Introduction As a key component of the water cycle, freshwater discharge integrates a host of physical and biogeochemical processes crucial for sustaining ecosystems, influencing climate and related global change. The hydrologic consequences of changes in global climate have become a major concern for scientists and policymakers alike. As such, it has become increasingly clear that pragmatic, real-time information on freshwater water discharge, at varied spatial scales and over the globe, is

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Sunke Schmidt and Uwe Send

Archipelago freshwater exports to East Greenland ice melt and East Greenland Arctic freshwater export. Various authors describe a connection between freshwater export from the Arctic via the East Greenland Current and the convection activity in the Labrador Sea ( Aagaard and Carmack 1989 ; Dickson et al. 1996 ; Pickart et al. 2002 ; Haak et al. 2003 ; Kwok et al. 2004 ), for which the Great Salinity Anomaly of the 1970s is a pronounced example ( Dickson et al. 1988 ), but the exact pathway and

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Garry K. C. Clarke, Andrew B. G. Bush, and John W. M. Bush

.g., Thomas et al. 2007 ) and spatial heterogeneity of the terrestrial signal ( Seppä et al. 2007 ). For recent reviews see Alley and Ágústsdóttir (2005) and Rohling and Pälike (2005) . The cause of the 8.2 ka event remains controversial. A leading explanation is that the convective overturning of the North Atlantic Ocean was affected by the flux of freshwater to the Labrador Sea from the catastrophic drainage of an ice-dammed superlake that formed by the coalescence of glacial lakes Agassiz and

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Peter E. D. Davis, Camille Lique, and Helen L. Johnson

1. Introduction The Arctic Ocean receives an input of freshwater from Eurasian and North American river runoff, net precipitation over evaporation (positive P − E ), and sea ice melt. The Atlantic contributes relatively salty water via Fram Strait and the Barents Sea, and the Pacific relatively freshwater via Bering Strait. After significant watermass transformation, freshwater is exported in both liquid and solid (ice) form into the Nordic and Labrador Seas, through Fram Strait and the

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Vladimir M. Kattsov, John E. Walsh, William L. Chapman, Veronika A. Govorkova, Tatyana V. Pavlova, and Xiangdong Zhang

1. Introduction The distribution of precipitation and evapotranspiration in the Arctic has been a subject of accelerating interest in recent years. This interest is driven largely by the realization that variations in hydrologic processes in the Arctic have major implications not only for arctic terrestrial and marine ecosystems, but also for the cryosphere and the global ocean. For example, the supply of freshwater to the Arctic Ocean is (over a period of multiple years) essentially equal to

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