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Anne Marie K. Stoner, Katharine Hayhoe, and Donald J. Wuebbles

amplitude and spatial characteristics such as distribution and intensity). These patterns have implications for future change, as long-term shifts in the frequency and/or intensity of natural cycles could alter the range of surface climate conditions experienced in many locations around the world. For that reason, it is important to evaluate the ability of atmosphere–ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) to reproduce these patterns, as a reasonable first assumption might be that the models best able

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Gaëlle de Coëtlogon, Claude Frankignoul, Mats Bentsen, Claire Delon, Helmuth Haak, Simona Masina, and Anne Pardaens

involves the interaction of the wind-driven circulation with changes in the thermohaline circulation. This can be investigated using oceanic general circulation models (OGCMs). However, the GS transport is much too weak in non-eddy-resolving OGCMs, and the GS does not separate from the coast at Cape Hatteras, but follows the continental shelf until the Grand Banks, leaving no space for the slope sea and the observed northern cyclonic circulation cell. This happens because inertial effects and the

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Dargan M. W. Frierson

derived using potential vorticity diffusion considerations was shown to be accurate for an idealized dry general circulation model (GCM; Schneider 2004 ). Schneider’s theory evaluates the meridional gradients at the surface instead of in the midtroposphere as is typical in baroclinic adjustment theories. Recent studies have shown that the detailed predictions of the dry baroclinic eddy theories are not borne out in a full GCM ( Thuburn and Craig 1997 ), in a dry primitive equation model under

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Andrew R. Bock, Lauren E. Hay, Gregory J. McCabe, Steven L. Markstrom, and R. Dwight Atkinson

balance model (MWBM) ( Bock et al. 2016a , b , 2017 ). To satisfy the second goal, estimates of future freshwater supplies are needed. This can be accomplished by using projected climate simulations from general circulation models (GCMs) to drive hydrologic models. Many atmospheric processes that have hydrologic consequences are not modeled adequately by GCMs ( Liu et al. 2014 ; Papadimitriou et al. 2017 ); reliable hydrologic modeling requires climatological information on scales that are generally

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Edwin P. Gerber, Sergey Voronin, and Lorenzo M. Polvani

1. Introduction Held and Suarez (1994 , hereinafter HS94 ), established a benchmark for comparing the numerical schemes of different dynamical cores, general circulation models (GCMs) that integrate the primitive equations with idealized physics. They proposed a simple set of forcings that produce a realistic climate without complex parameterizations, allowing a comparison of the dynamical fidelity of GCMs independently of differences in their radiation, convection, and boundary layer schemes

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Steven R. Jayne

1. Introduction Mixing in the ocean is a critical process determining the circulation and properties of the ocean. It occurs at the smallest spatial scales and is the end result of a variety of different dynamical processes ranging from eddy stirring, wave breaking, and turbulent mixing down to molecular diffusion. Since this process is unresolved in ocean general circulation models (OGCMs), it must be correctly parameterized, and that is one of the greatest challenges in physical oceanography

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Yuya Baba, Keiko Takahashi, Takeshi Sugimura, and Koji Goto

1. Introduction In the past few decades, various grid systems, along with a variety of coordinates, cell shapes, and discretizations, have been developed to simulate the global atmospheric circulation. While each grid system has both advantages and disadvantages, the latitude–longitude grid appears to be the most widely used grid for atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs). This is partly because data handling for interpolating model input–output or observational data in the latitude

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Yutian Wu and Karen L. Smith

(2014) ]. There is an increasing body of observational and modeling evidence that AA might strongly impact both the weather and climate, not only in the Arctic region but also remotely in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) midlatitudes [see review articles by Cohen et al. (2014) and Barnes and Screen (2015) and references therein]. In general, most of these studies have detected an atmospheric circulation response resembling a negative North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) or northern annular mode (NAM

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Paul A. O’Gorman and Tapio Schneider

Oceanographic Institution. [Available online at .] . Held , I. M. , and M. J. Suarez , 1994 : A proposal for the intercomparison of the dynamical cores of atmospheric general circulation models. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 75 , 1825 – 1830 . Held , I. M. , and V. D. Larichev , 1996 : A scaling theory for horizontally homogeneous, baroclinically unstable flow on a beta plane. J. Atmos. Sci. , 53 , 946 – 952 . Held , I. M. , and T. Schneider , 1999 : The

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Jan-Huey Chen and Shian-Jiann Lin

naturally occur in regions with favorable storm-permitting large-scale environments. The seasonal evolution of large-scale atmospheric circulations associated with the TC activity can also be simultaneously available from the model prediction. For the North Atlantic basin, it has been recently demonstrated that dynamic-based models are generally more skillful than pure statistical models in the retrospective TC’s seasonal prediction for the past recent decades. Vitart et al. (2007) achieved a high

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