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Richard W. Dixon and Todd W. Moore

Geographic Information Systems . 5th ed. McGraw Hill, 448 pp . Changnon, S. A. , 2009 : Tornado losses in the United States . Nat. Hazards Rev. , 9 , 145 – 150 . Crossett K. M. , Culliton T. J. , Wiley P. C. , and Goodspeed T. R. , 2004 : Population trends along the coastal United States: 1980-2008. NOAA Coastal Trends Rep., 54 pp. [Available online at .] Cutter, S. L. , 1996 : Vulnerability to environmental

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Yongxin Deng, Brendan Wallace, Derek Maassen, and Johnathan Werner

has been reached regarding the mapping methods or parameters (e.g., Brooks et al. 2003 ; Dixon et al. 2011 ; Dixon and Mercer 2012 ; Marsh and Brooks 2012 ). We believe this situation is related to several geographical information system (GIS) complications—present at conceptual as well as methodological levels—that need to be fully recognized and systematically addressed. To say the least, individual tornadoes are discrete real-world events in space–time and are directly observable

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Corene J. Matyas

as the timing of peak areal coverage is dependent upon this threshold ( Muramatsu 1983 ; Lajoie and Butterworth 1984 ). Ground-based radar reflectivity data provide a spatially accurate representation of the areal coverage of TC rain fields over land areas without this limitation. This study employed a geographic information system (GIS) to measure the areal extent of radar reflectivity returns associated with 45 TC landfalls in the United States. The main hypothesis was that the diurnal cycle

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James E. Hocker and Jeffrey B. Basara

. In addition, storm reports yield little information concerning critical storm characteristics, such as initiation, track, duration, termination, and type. The application of geographic information systems (GIS) in meteorological studies has increased in recent years ( Yuan and McIntosh 2003 , 2004 ) and has established the technology as a viable means for analyzing large collections of archived weather events. As such, this study was conceived to combine the use of Next Generation Weather Radar

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A. Kermanshah, S. Derrible, and M. Berkelhammer

vulnerability of road systems to rainfall-induced flash floods under different future climate change scenarios. Overall, by combining the power of climate models, network science, geographical information systems (GIS), and stochastic modeling, the main goal of this article is to develop and apply a sound method to assess the vulnerability of road systems against climatically driven changes in the character (such as frequency and

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Brandon J. Vogt

sensed cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning strike location data, a digital elevation model (DEM), and a geographic information system (GIS) to empirically document long-standing assumptions about lightning attachment behavior. Although this work supports extant lightning theory, it illustrates how GIS may be employed to examine theoretical questions about lightning and to enhance applied concerns related to lightning protection system design and structure site selection. Since Benjamin Franklin’s work

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Danielde Castro Victoria, Alailson Venceslau Santiago, Maria Victoria Ramos Ballester, Antonio Roberto Pereira, Reynaldo Luiz Victoria, and Jeffrey E. Richey

, long time series of discharge (95 and 50 yr, respectively) were available. As such, long time series are scarce in most Amazonian rivers; much effort has been placed into hydrological modeling to estimate the possible effects of deforestation on water balance. In this study, the climatological Thornthwaite–Mather ( Thornwaite and Mather 1955 ) water balance approach ( Werth and Avissar 2004 ) was inserted into the ArcInfo Geographic Information System (GIS; v7.0) to simulate the monthly water

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Dehe Xu, Qi Zhang, Yan Ding, and De Zhang

geovisualization, which integrates approaches from cartography, geographic information science, and data visualization ( Kraak 2006 ). Typically, such exploration involves interactive representations. Here, we focus on the STC representation ( Filho et al. 2020 ). The STC model is based on the aggregation of sample points into spatiotemporal bar columns ( Mo et al. 2020 ). The creation of STC enables the visualization and analysis of space–time data in the form of time series analysis and integrated space and

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Yao Zhou and Corene J. Matyas

) database ( Knapp et al. 2010 ) and are plotted within a geographic information system (GIS) to identify TCs making landfall over the western Gulf Coast and the Caribbean coast during 1998–2015. A total of 35 TCs are examined, after excluding storms that spend less than 24 h over the ocean, or do not reach tropical storm (TS) intensity during their life cycle. We also exclude one extratropical storm since it experiences different environmental conditions than the tropical storms in this region ( Fig. 1

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M. P. Calef, A. Varvak, A. D. McGuire, F. S. Chapin III, and K. B. Reinhold

Turetsky 2006 ; Miyanishi and Johnson 2001 ; Ward et al. 2001 ). Through advances in fire ecology, the initial U.S. policy of aggressive fire suppression has morphed through time into fire management systems that recognize wildfires as an integral part of ecosystem dynamics ( Todd and Jewkes 2006 ). Additionally, it has never been realistic to suppress all fires in the vast boreal forest of Alaska, which is why the state was classified into four fire management options or fire management zones (FMZs

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