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Yongxin Deng
,
Brendan Wallace
,
Derek Maassen
, and
Johnathan Werner

has been reached regarding the mapping methods or parameters (e.g., Brooks et al. 2003 ; Dixon et al. 2011 ; Dixon and Mercer 2012 ; Marsh and Brooks 2012 ). We believe this situation is related to several geographical information system (GIS) complications—present at conceptual as well as methodological levels—that need to be fully recognized and systematically addressed. To say the least, individual tornadoes are discrete real-world events in space–time and are directly observable

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A. Kermanshah
,
S. Derrible
, and
M. Berkelhammer

vulnerability of road systems to rainfall-induced flash floods under different future climate change scenarios. Overall, by combining the power of climate models, network science, geographical information systems (GIS), and stochastic modeling, the main goal of this article is to develop and apply a sound method to assess the vulnerability of road systems against climatically driven changes in the character (such as frequency and

Open access
Neil N. Davis
,
Jake Badger
,
Andrea N. Hahmann
,
Brian O. Hansen
,
Niels G. Mortensen
,
Mark Kelly
,
Xiaoli G. Larsén
,
Bjarke T. Olsen
,
Rogier Floors
,
Gil Lizcano
,
Pau Casso
,
Oriol Lacave
,
Albert Bosch
,
Ides Bauwens
,
Oliver James Knight
,
Albertine Potter van Loon
,
Rachel Fox
,
Tigran Parvanyan
,
Søren Bo Krohn Hansen
,
Duncan Heathfield
,
Marko Onninen
, and
Ray Drummond

Demonstration Program GDL Geostrophic drag law GIS Geographic information system GSHHG Global Self-consistent, Hierarchical, High-resolution Geography Database GWA Global Wind Atlas GWC Generalized wind climate IEC International Electrotechnical Commission MERRA Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications MODIS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer NCEP National Centers for Environmental Prediction NWA Numerical wind atlas NWP Numerical weather prediction

Open access
Yao Zhou
and
Corene J. Matyas

) database ( Knapp et al. 2010 ) and are plotted within a geographic information system (GIS) to identify TCs making landfall over the western Gulf Coast and the Caribbean coast during 1998–2015. A total of 35 TCs are examined, after excluding storms that spend less than 24 h over the ocean, or do not reach tropical storm (TS) intensity during their life cycle. We also exclude one extratropical storm since it experiences different environmental conditions than the tropical storms in this region ( Fig. 1

Open access
M. P. Calef
,
A. Varvak
,
A. D. McGuire
,
F. S. Chapin III
, and
K. B. Reinhold

Turetsky 2006 ; Miyanishi and Johnson 2001 ; Ward et al. 2001 ). Through advances in fire ecology, the initial U.S. policy of aggressive fire suppression has morphed through time into fire management systems that recognize wildfires as an integral part of ecosystem dynamics ( Todd and Jewkes 2006 ). Additionally, it has never been realistic to suppress all fires in the vast boreal forest of Alaska, which is why the state was classified into four fire management options or fire management zones (FMZs

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Yumei Hu
,
Esben Almkvist
,
Torbjörn Gustavsson
, and
Jörgen Bogren

authority (Lantmäteriet), road vector data, digital elevation model (DEM), land-use data, and a digital surface model (DSM), were all accessed and used to generate the geographical parameters used in this study. Most of the parameters were developed using the geographical information system (GIS) software ArcGIS desktop. The road vector data were divided into 50-m segments, and the thermal-mapping measurements and geographical parameters were spatially related to the segmented scaled road vertices. This

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Ayobami Badiru Moreira
,
Ranyére Silva Nóbrega
,
Lucas Suassuna de A. Wanderley
, and
Andreas Matzarakis

vulnerability indices ( Tate 2012 ; Barrozo et al. 2020 ; Niu et al. 2021 ). Also, geographic information systems (GIS) are an essential tool for UHI vulnerability assessment. To calculate exposure, spatial analysis techniques synthetize landscape and weather data (such as vegetation, urban canyon patterns, water bodies, temperature) to indicate UHI intensities along the spatial domain. Sensitivity and adaptive capacities are commonly addressed by sociodemographic data, that is, age, gender, health

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Michelle E. Saunders
,
Kevin D. Ash
, and
Jennifer M. Collins

anthropogenic features ( Diederich et al. 2015 ; Maddox et al. 2002 ). Likewise, access to telecommunication technologies—particularly home and mobile Internet—is generally much more limited in rural than in urban locations ( Cutter et al. 2016 ; Salemink et al. 2017 ). In addition to the geographic limitations of infrastructure, there are individual factors that can limit or deny access to weather information via radar maps. Despite the overall increase in telecommunications technologies over the past 30

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Jordan R. Bell
,
Emily F. Wisinski
,
Andrew L. Molthan
,
Christopher J. Schultz
,
Emma Gilligan
, and
Kaylee G. Sharp

Nebraska, and southwestern Iowa. (b) Visible HWDSs on 19 Aug 2011 by MODIS true color imagery (FirstDate). (c) Same HWDSs as in (b), but observed on 24 Aug 2011 by MODIS true color imagery (BestDate) with the geospatial outline drawn around one of the HWDSs. BestDate MODIS imagery from Worldview were downloaded and imported into Esri’s ArcGIS Pro ( https://www.esri.com/en-us/arcgis/products/arcgis-pro/overview ), a geographic information system (GIS) software used to create shapefile polygons to

Open access
Corene J. Matyas

as the timing of peak areal coverage is dependent upon this threshold ( Muramatsu 1983 ; Lajoie and Butterworth 1984 ). Ground-based radar reflectivity data provide a spatially accurate representation of the areal coverage of TC rain fields over land areas without this limitation. This study employed a geographic information system (GIS) to measure the areal extent of radar reflectivity returns associated with 45 TC landfalls in the United States. The main hypothesis was that the diurnal cycle

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