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Seth P. Tuler, Thomas Webler, and Jason L. Rhoades

the efforts of governments and nongovernmental entities to manage stormwater and its impacts ( Funkhouser 2007 ; Hirschman et al. 2011 ; Zhou et al. 2012 ). For example, alterations in the seasonality, duration, form, and amount of precipitation can lead to different stormwater flows. For many North American communities, climate change and variability will likely mean an increased likelihood of flooding, although there will be regional variation ( Hirschman et al. 2011 ; Melillo et al. 2014

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Leandro Ponsoni, Borja Aguiar-González, Herman Ridderinkhof, and Leo R. M. Maas

computation of the geostrophic velocity field and its associated transport (e.g., Fomin 1964 ) depends on the choice of a velocity reference level (and salinity estimates in the XBT case). Additionally, factors such as time variability, geographical location, and differences in the horizontal and vertical scales involved in the geostrophic calculations also contributed to the disparities in the EMC volume transport found in the literature: 20–24 Sv ( Wyrtki 1971 ), 35 Sv ( Harris 1972 ), 41 Sv

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Daniel B. Ferguson, Anna Masayesva, Alison M. Meadow, and Michael A. Crimmins

information messages into, within, and out of any definable entity; and b) determine the criteria by which the value of information messages will be judged.” We therefore focused on understanding what affects the circulation and use of information into, within, and out of the HDNR and tried to understand how that information will be seen as valuable or not within both the HDNR and with the broader tribal leadership. The goals for the interviews with non-HDNR drought stakeholders were 1) to better

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Baode Chen, Wen-wen Tung, and Michio Yanai

duct. The PKE budget analysis has further been used to diagnose the energetics of the intraseasonal variability and MJO in model simulations. Mu and Zhang (2006) examined the PKE budget in the modified NCAR CAM3, and pointed out that different mechanisms are responsible for the PKE production at different locations. Deng and Wu (2011) computed the PKE budget to delineate the physical processes that led to improved MJO simulations by a general circulation model. These studies demonstrated that

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Michael A. Spall

world in any detailed manner, names based on the real geography will be used to describe the model configuration and in discussion of the results. The maximum bottom depth is 1000 m, with a 100-km-wide region of sloping topography around the basin perimeter. The actual Arctic Ocean is much deeper than 1000 m, but the main focus of this study in on the circulation in the Atlantic layer (shallower than 1000 m) and development of the halocline. There is a 300-m-tall ridge that separates the Arctic

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Yeping Yuan and Alexander R. Horner-Devine
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Diandong Ren and Lance M. Leslie

simulate the geographical distribution of storm genesis locations as well as seasonal cycles and interannual variability of tropical cyclone frequency for the major basins (e.g., Zhao and Held 2010 ). For twenty-first-century projection, we only examine the IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B emission scenario runs. 3. Methods A range of statistical techniques is employed to determine trends in TC activity. Here, TC activity is taken as mean annual frequency, and the genesis and

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Anthony R. Poggioli and Alexander R. Horner-Devine

control—that is, the flow is critical there—in the absence of varying channel topography. However, if there are significant lateral constrictions present in the estuary, the relevant control may be a channel constriction and not the river mouth. This is because flow constrictions satisfy the regularity conditions, which are necessary local topographic conditions (e.g., db / dx = 0) for the existence of a hydraulic control ( Armi 1986 ). Denoting the location of the control as x = 0, the first

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Rory G. J. Fitzpatrick, Caroline L. Bain, Peter Knippertz, John H. Marsham, and Douglas J. Parker

). The AODM is triggered every year across most locations in West Africa except toward northern West Africa (14°–16°N). Interannual variability in the AODM is high over much of continental West Africa with local standard deviations of more than two weeks being common ( Fig. 1b ). Conversely, in the longitude bound 10°–20°W, local standard deviation of the AODM is generally lower than elsewhere within our studied region. The high variability of the AODM found over much of West Africa suggests that

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M. Haeffelin, S. Crewell, A. J. Illingworth, G. Pappalardo, H. Russchenberg, M. Chiriaco, K. Ebell, R. J. Hogan, and F. Madonna

100 sensors from 10 different institutes. In 1975, the National University of Ireland (Galway) established the Atmospheric Research station at Mace Head on the west coast of Ireland. The major observatory has been used as a background baseline research station for over 50 years. (Aerosol measurements started in 1958 at a location nearby.) Figure 29-1 shows the geographical distribution of atmospheric observatories in Europe dedicated to aerosol, cloud, and trace gas monitoring. Figure 29

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