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M. Pinsky, A. Khain, and A. Korolev

algorithms (e.g., Schols et al. 1999 ) and validation of radar and lidar measurements (e.g., Lohmeier et al. 1997 ; Iguchi et al. 2012 ; Young 1974 ). The phase composition determines to a large extent the radiation balance (e.g., Oshchepkov and Isaka 1997 ) and is important for climate modeling (e.g., Sun and Shine 1995 ; Wilson 2000 ). Mixed-phase clouds are colloidally unstable, which leads to conversion of the liquid phase into ice. This process is usually called glaciation of mixed

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Norihiko Fukuta

and water. The process can lead tothree different final states: one in which partial glaciation of the supercooled cloud water brings the parceltemperature to 0C, one in which sublimation of water vapor takes place from the frozen phase, and onein which deposition occurs to it. It is pointed out that a treatment which considers only the release oflatent heat of fusion, without taking into account the subsequent change in water vapor deosity, is a specialcase and is generally incorrect.1

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Richard S. Lindzen

' 986 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOL. 43. No. 10A Simple Model for IOOK-Year Oscillations in Glaciation RICHARD S. LINDZENDepartment of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (Manuscript received 7 May 1985, in final form 2 December 1985)ABSTRACTA simple model is presented 'where response to forcing with components at 20K, 40K and IOOK yr (whereforcing, however, is strongly dominated by 20K yr

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P. B. Maccready Jr. and R. G. Baughman

132 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY VOLUME7The Glaciation of an AgI-Seeded Cumulus Cloud P. B. MAcCREAD-, JR. M~teorology R~s~arch, Inc., Altad~na, Calif. AND R. G. BAUGII~ANNorth~'n Forest Fire Laboratory, U. $. Forest Service, Missoula~ Mont.(Manuscript received 31 August 1967, in revised form 4 October 1967) Records from an airborne continuous cloud particle collector showed

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B. F. Ryan

824: JOURNAl. OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCESA Numerical Study of the Nature of the Glaciation Process B. F. R-2uqDivision of Cloud Physics, CSIRO, Sydney, A ustralia(Manuscript received 24 August 1972, in revised form 23 March 1973) ABSTRACT A mode] is presented which simulates the g]adation of a cloud. In this mode| both vapor transfer andaccretion processes are computed, the latter being treated stochast~ca|ly. Two model clouds have

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siiffices. Some comhination of astronomic, geologic,and atmospheric conditionr reenir t o be necessary t o produce suchcatastrophic events in the n orldb history. The difficulty of the problein is increased by the apparently haphazard n ay in which glaciations hnve developed. Time andagain the author comments un the parado\ of field work, especiallyon Permo-Carboiiiferoiis tillites, beneath an almost vertical 51111in a teniperature suggestive of an) thing bllt ice. On the otherhand, SO far as is known

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Robert I. Sax

92 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGYThe Importance of Natural Glaciation on the Modification of Tropical Maritime Cumuli by Silver Iodide Seeding RoB~.~r I. SAxAtmospheric Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, ESSA, Coral Gables, Fla.(Manuscript received 21 August 1968, in revised form 7 November 1968) In order to determine if natural gladation proceeds rapidly or extensively enough in tropical maritimecumuli to influence attempts to modi/y their dynamical

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Gad Levy and William R. Cotton

similar in size to the one observed isinitiated, glaciation is simulated in experiments designed to study the mechanisms by which glaciation iscommunicated to the subcloud boundary layer. Numerical model results show that the vertical pressuremechanism consisting of hydrostatic and dynamic pressure gradient force and "pressure buoyancy" is present,as is the downdraft mechanism, but they are secondary to loading, temperature buoyancy, water vaporbuoyancy and the horizontal dynamic forces on the scale

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L. Randall Koenig

726JOURNAL OF TIlE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCESVOLUME 23Numerical Test of the Validity of the Drop-Freezing/SplinteringHypothesis of Cloud GlaciationL. RANDALL KOENIGDouglas M~ssiie & Space Systems Dinision, San~is Monica, Cali~f.(Manuscript received 18 April 1966)ABSTRACTA numerical experiment in the simulation of cloud microphysical processes is described. The purpose of theexperiment was to test the hypothesis that drop-freezing/splintering is an important mechanism in cumuluscloud glaciation

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Fabian Senf and Hartwig Deneke

the growth of convective clouds induced by boundary layer convergence in the United States. It has been found that satellite-derived cloud growth rates potentially provide precursor information up to 30 min before radar-derived storm initiation. In addition, Mecikalski and Bedka (2006) , Mecikalski et al. (2008) , and Walker et al. (2012) have combined multispectral estimates of cloud depth, growth, and glaciation to assess the potential of convective storm development. Based on their CI

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