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Daniel E. Christiansen, Steven L. Markstrom, and Lauren E. Hay

1. Introduction Climate simulations by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have demonstrated warming of the surface of Earth from 1860 to 2000 ( Houghton et al. 2001 ). The simulated climatic changes show a significant impact on growing season length (GSL) leading to corresponding changes to important hydrologic cycles in the watershed-scale hydrologic cycle. GSL, the onset of spring warming, the delay in fall cooling, and basin hydrology are integrally linked. GSL has been

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John H. Pedlar, Daniel W. McKenney, Kevin Lawrence, Pia Papadopol, Michael F. Hutchinson, and David Price

1. Introduction Length of growing season is an important determinant of plant growth and distribution. In agriculture, it is a key variable in crop-growth simulations that project spatiotemporal patterns in crop yields (e.g., Liu et al. 2007 ; Reidsma et al. 2009 ). In a similar way, many models of forest processes such as net primary productivity and carbon cycling benefit from accurate growing-season start and end dates (e.g., Richardson et al. 2009 , 2010 ). Moreover, growing season is

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Randy A. Peppler and Peter J. Lamb

1156 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUME 117Tropospheric Static Stability and Central North American Growing Season Rainfall RANDY A. PEPPLER AND PETER J. LAMB*Climate and Meteorology Section. Illinois State Water Survey. Champaign. Illinois(Manuscript received 6 June 1988, in final form 8 November 1988) This study investigates the relation between tropospheric static stability and

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WILLIAM GARDNER REED

SEPTEMBER, 1916. MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW. 509SECTION 11.-GENERAL METEOROLOGY.THE PROBABLE GROWING SEASON.By WILLIAM GARDNER REED.[Dated 17. S. Office of Farm Mansgement, Washington, July 24.1910.]Although the terni growing season hns been usedto inclicnte the iiuniber of days between the last killing frost in Sprin and the first Itiliing frost in the nver-the growth of plmted crops. Tlie accompanying imp in figure 3 (w. G. R., fig. 2, Chilrt xLIv-1211 is an attempt to show the robably

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Nikolaos Christidis, Peter A. Stott, Simon Brown, David J. Karoly, and John Caesar

changes in temperature extremes ( Hegerl et al. 2004 ; Christidis et al. 2005 ) in the diurnal temperature range ( Braganza et al. 2004a ), in the hemispheric and the land-ocean contrast, and the meridional temperature gradient ( Braganza et al. 2004b ). Along the same line, this work focuses on the growing season length, another important temperature index, expected to increase in a warming climate. This is the first attempt to detect any significant change in climatological seasons on a global

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Andrew J. Grundstein and Mace L. Bentley

1987 ). The study that is presented here is centered on the development of a century-long hydroclimatology for the Ohio Valley with emphasis on periods of moisture deficit. In this paper, the term “deficit” is considered from an agricultural point of view whereby moisture-induced crop stress is a combination of insufficient precipitation and soil moisture. Of particular concern are deficits that occur during the growing season (May–September) when vegetation is most susceptible to moisture

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FERDINAND J. WALZ

killingseason as usually determined is the number of a s b e tween the average date of the last killing frost in B pri and the average date of the first killing frost in F Z Inathis study the leneh of the growing season with the above definition, but the growing season was computed by number of days between the date first killing frost. in each season and taking the mean. As the chance of safety from killing frost in Spring is50 per cent when the average date of last killing frost arnves, and also the

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NORMAN J. ROSENBERG and RICHARD E. MYERS

KOVEBIBER 1962 471THE NATURE OF GROWING SEASON FROSTS IN AND ALONG THEPLATTE VALLEY OF NEBRASKANORMAN J. ROSENBERGDepartment of Horticulture a n d Forestry. University of NebraskaandRICHARD E. MYERSUS. Weather Bureau, Lincoln, Nehr.[Manuscript received June 28. 1962: revised August 20, 19621ABSTRACTHistorical frost events (minimum shelter temperature 5 3 2 ' F.) were studied at 10 locations within and adjacentto the Platte Valley of Nebraska and the cause of these frosts was determined with the

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WILLIAM GARDNER REED

highlands. In the western United States, topography is the most important control other than that exerted west of the Sierra Nevada-Cascadea by the Pacific Ocean. The map of the average growing season has much the stme characteristics. In fact, all threediffer only in details. As corner inserts of these three double-page maps are small maps showing the areas covered b cnch eneralI wave of last killing frost in spring and &t in ill. A given frost may occur over a large area on one date, and another

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Zhiwei Wu, Hai Lin, and Ted O’Brien

been relatively small up to now. This motivates us to conduct this work. Agrometeorological conditions include quite a few aspects, and several indices have been proposed to measure their variations (e.g., Vincent and Mekis 2006 ; Qian et al. 2010 ). Among them, growing-season start of warm-season crops (GSSWC) is a principal one. Warm-season crops include bean, corn, pea, soybean, and so on. It was found that warm-season crops in most Canadian areas will not start growing until daily mean

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