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Xiaofei Li, Qinghong Zhang, Tian Zou, Jipei Lin, Hoiio Kong, and Zhihua Ren

1. Introduction The natural hazard of hail is generally produced by deep convective storms with an appropriate updraft strength, sufficient supercooled liquid water content, conducive temperature conditions, and an optimal lifetime ( Nelson 1983 ; Ziegler et al. 1983 ; Hohl et al. 2002 ; Grant and van den Heever 2014 ; Punge and Kunz 2016 ; Dennis and Kumjian 2017 ; Li et al. 2017 ). Hail often develops during a short time period (as little as a few minutes and up to a few hours

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Mingxin Li, Da-Lin Zhang, Jisong Sun, and Qinghong Zhang

1. Introduction A recent cloud–hail modeling study of Brimelow et al. (2017) indicates that while hail days are projected to decrease over southern North America and increase over the central to northern plains during spring and summer, the mean hail size is projected to increase under a warming climate background. The observational studies of Tippett et al. (2015) and Allen and Tippett (2015) reveal that under a warming climate, large-hail days stay unchanged but small-hail days tend to

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Pamela L. Heinselman and Alexander V. Ryzhkov

1. Introduction Over the past 45 yr, numerous studies have explored the relationships between the conventional (i.e., single polarization) radar reflectivity factor (hereafter reflectivity) and hail occurrence at the ground. These studies usually employ radar reflectivity data only (e.g., Donaldson 1959 ; Geotis 1963 ; Rinehart and Staggs 1968 ; Waldvogel and Federer 1976 ; Dye and Martner 1978 ; Amburn and Wolf 1997 ), radar reflectivity data combined with observations from other sensors

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Rachel E. Gutierrez and Matthew R. Kumjian

five animals and injuring several people at the Cheyenne Mountain Zoo ( Childs 2018 ; Torres 2018 ). Similarly catastrophic events can occur globally, including two storms in Germany in 2013 that were responsible for $3.7 billion in insured losses ( MunichRe 2013 ). Moreover, damages to property resulting from severe hail have increased in recent decades, in part owing to more homes and businesses being built in hail-prone regions, higher density of infrastructure, and more expensive materials (e

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Jari-Petteri Tuovinen, Ari-Juhani Punkka, Jenni Rauhala, Harri Hohti, and David M. Schultz

Punkka et al. (2006) . A microburst at the heavily instrumented Hyytiälä forestry field station in southern Finland was documented by Järvi et al. (2007) . A climatology of tornadoes in Finland has been constructed by Teittinen and Brooks (2006) , and Doppler and dual-polarimetric radar reports of tornadic supercells were analyzed by Teittinen et al. (2006) and Outinen and Teittinen (2007) . No previous climatologies of hail in Finland have been made, nor have hail reports been systematically

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Matthew R. Kumjian, Zachary J. Lebo, and Aaron M. Ward

1. Motivation Each year, severe convective storms in the United States inflict billions of dollars in damage to homes, businesses, property, and agriculture, with the largest contributor to insured losses being hail ( Allen et al. 2017 ). These losses have been increasing in recent years and were comparable to damage from tropical cyclones ( Gunturi and Tippett 2017 ) until the active 2017 hurricane season. In part, these increasing losses are due to the relatively frequent occurrence of

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Paul R. Field, Andrew J. Heymsfield, Andrew G. Detwiler, and Jonathan M. Wilkinson

1. Introduction Hail is observed on every continent but Antarctica ( Cecil and Blankenship 2012 ). Significant hail damage to crops and structures occurs often in regions along the flanks of mountain ranges in Europe, North America, South America, southern and eastern Africa, the European portion of Russia, and in China ( Court and Griffiths 1986 ). Large hail is often produced by thunderstorms forming during the warm season in interior continental plains regions, such as the High Plains of the

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Matthew R. Kumjian, Kelly Lombardo, and Scott Loeffler

1. Introduction Around the world each year, hailstorms rain damage and destruction on property and agriculture. Characterizing the hail threat from a given storm throughout its lifetime is important given the large socioeconomic impacts of hailstorms globally (e.g., Changnon et al. 2009 ; Brown et al. 2015 ; Punge and Kunz 2016 ; Púčik et al. 2019 ; Allen et al. 2020 ). Such information is directly relevant to operational severe weather warnings. For example, given the current hail

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Alexander V. Ryzhkov, Matthew R. Kumjian, Scott M. Ganson, and Pengfei Zhang

1. Introduction The first part of this series ( Ryzhkov et al. 2013 , hereinafter Part I ) provides the results of theoretical modeling of polarimetric radar characteristics of melting hail using a one-dimensional thermodynamic model of Rasmussen and Heymsfield (1987) that was generalized for arbitrary initial size distributions of ice particles at the freezing level, where melting starts. Such a model realistically reproduces vertical profiles of various radar variables in hail

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Abdullah Kahraman, Şeyda Tilev-Tanriover, Mikdat Kadioglu, David M. Schultz, and Paul M. Markowski

1. Introduction Insured losses owing to hail damage in Turkey accounted for over 60% of all weather-related insured losses during 2007–13 [$73 million (U.S. dollars) in 2013], according to the Turkish Agricultural Insurance Pool (TARSIM; TARSIM 2014 ; Fig. 1 ). The vast majority of the losses have been related to agriculture, which plays an important role in Turkey’s economy (over $60 billion per year, or about 10% of the Turkish gross domestic product). A quarter of the working population

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