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Clémentde Boyer Montégut, Jérôme Vialard, S. S. C. Shenoi, D. Shankar, Fabien Durand, Christian Ethé, and Gurvan Madec

, since no two monsoons are alike, in no two years does the NIO behave the same way: there is considerable interannual variability ( Webster et al. 1998 ). This is reflected in the variations of temperature, salinity, and mixed layer processes and in the heat and salt budgets. The interannual variability of the heat budget of the upper ocean (or mixed layer) is of paramount interest for air–sea coupling. Several studies have examined the seasonal cycle of the mixed layer in the Arabian Sea (AS

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Francisco Criado-Aldeanueva, F. Javier Soto-Navarro, and Jesús García-Lafuente

characterization of heat and water fluxes since they make a basin budget closure feasible. As evaporation E exceeds precipitation P and river runoff R , inflow from Atlantic through the Strait of Gibraltar is necessary to balance the water and salt budgets. Fig . 1. Map of the Mediterranean Sea. The main basins and subbasins are indicated. A great number of studies have dealt with the Mediterranean heat ( Bethoux 1979 ; Bunker et al. 1982 ; May 1986 ; Garrett et al. 1993 ; Gilman and Garrett 1994

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Sun Wong, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, William S. Olson, Xianan Jiang, and Eric J. Fetzer

fluxes at the TOA and the surface, the GSSTF2c SH, and the GPCP precipitation will be inputs of the rhs of Eq. (2) , referred to as the synthetic flux convergence (FLUX CONV). Their seasonal averages and variability will be compared with those of TRAIN Q1 and AIRS/MERRA Q1. While MERRA and ERA-Interim assimilate AIRS radiance data, it provides fields of T , even in cloudy areas. Thus, we also calculate total Q1 directly from the MERRA and ERA-Interim heat budgets (i.e., from the dynamical T

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B. Curry, C. M. Lee, and B. Petrie

volume, freshwater, and heat transports between the Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans. Variability in freshwater export through Davis Strait could impact North Atlantic deep convection (e.g., Våge et al. 2009 ), alter the strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation ( Holland et al. 2001 ), and affect western North Atlantic continental shelf ecosystems ( Greene et al. 2008 ). Davis Strait captures the CAA outflow after modification during its transit through Baffin Bay to the Labrador

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Paul A. Davis

JAsuAu- 1963 P A U L A. D AV I S 5An Analysis of the Atmospheric Hea~ Budget~ PAUL A. DAVISStanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif. (Manuscript received 15 June 1962) With the aid of recent climatological data and laboratory radiation data, a meridional heat budget hasbeen formed for the atmosphere below the 25-rob level and between 20N and 70N latitude. The significantcomponents

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Walter Düing and Ants Leetmaa

feature of the East Australian Current. Nature, 218, 557-558.Stommel, H., 1966: The Gulf Stream. University of California Press, Berkeley, 248 pp.Turner, J. S., 1973: Buoyancy Effects in Fluids. Cambridge University Press, 367 pp.Arabian Sea Cooling: A Preliminary Heat Budget WALTER D~INGRosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33149ANTS LEETMAAAtlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratories, NOAA, Miami, FL 33149, and Cooperative

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Wenhui Cui and Ting Fong May Chui

hypothesized that neglecting lateral heat fluxes in the subsurface could contribute to the energy imbalance over the heterogeneous surface and that the level of energy balance closure could be improved if the lateral heat fluxes were considered. 2. Method Field measurements were performed using an eddy covariance system and an array of temperature and water-level sensors. The eddy covariance system was used to obtain the energy budget of a vegetated area, and the sensors were used to capture the

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Stefan Hastenrath

VOLUME10 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY FEBRUARY 1980Heat Budget of Tropical Ocean and Atmosphere~ STEFAN HASTENRATHDepartment of Meteorology. University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706(Manuscript received 14 March 1979, in final form 10 September 1979) ABSTRACT Heat budget estimates for the global tropics are derived from recent calculations of the oceanic heatbudget and satellite

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E. Vowinckel and Svenn Orvig

Jcx~1971 E. VOWINCKEL AND SVENN ORVIG 387Synoptic Heat Budgets at Three Polar 'Stations E. VOWINCKEL AND SVENN ORVIGDept. of Meteorology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada(Manuscript received 21 July 1970, in revised form 15 January 1971) AB STRA CTThe stations examined are Byrd (80- 01f S, 119- 3V W, 1533 in MSL), Wilkes (66- 15' S, 110- 35~ E, 12 mMSL

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Veronica Tamsitt, Lynne D. Talley, Matthew R. Mazloff, and Ivana Cerovečki

contributor to uncertainty in the upper ocean heat budget ( Dong et al. 2007 ; Faure et al. 2011 ). Recently developed air–sea flux products that constrain the heat fluxes with additional observations and reduce the global long-term surface heat imbalance ( Large and Yeager 2009 ) as well as adjusted fluxes from state estimates constrained to observations ( Figs. 1a,b ) show agreement in large-scale patterns of air–sea heat fluxes in the Southern Ocean ( Cerovečki et al. 2011 ). These improved heat flux

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