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Sarah G. Purkey and Gregory C. Johnson

-2003 ( Willis et al. 2008 ). Other SLR and global energy budgets rely on poorly constrained deep ocean heat uptake for closure ( Domingues et al. 2008 ; Murphy et al. 2009 ). Models contain a delay between greenhouse gas forcing and surface temperature increase because of the long equilibration time of the ocean ( Hansen et al. 2005 ). Therefore, even if greenhouse gas concentrations were kept constant at current levels, ocean temperatures and sea level would continue to rise for centuries

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A. K. Wåhlin and H. L. Johnson

Atlantic layer enters the basin well below the surface, direct heat loss from the boundary current to the atmosphere was neglected, and separate budgets for the boundary current and the basin interior were formulated. Heat lost from the inflowing boundary current was assumed to be transferred via eddies to the basin interior, from whence it is lost to the atmosphere. The aim of the present study is to investigate the different effects of surface heat and freshwater fluxes on the density evolution of

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Jordan T. Dawe and Lu Anne Thompson

2005 ). In addition, the realistic forcing used in these simulations makes it difficult to separate the oceanic response to decadal changes in the forcing from the low-frequency oceanic response that results from integration of noisy atmospheric forcing ( Frankignoul and Hasselmann 1977 ). Finally, few studies have conducted a full mixed layer temperature (MLT) budget analysis ( Miller et al. 1994b ), and even fewer have analyzed the upper-ocean heat content ( Kelly 2004 ), which may be the more

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Agus Santoso, Alexander Sen Gupta, and Matthew H. England

, advection, entrainment, mixing, and diffusion. It is thus important to study the heat budget evolution of the mixed layer, which essentially governs the genesis of modes of climate variability. A number of studies have recently been undertaken focusing on the mixed layer heat budget of the IO on seasonal time scales, for which observational data are sufficient (e.g., Rao and Sivakumar 2000 ). Studies on interannual time scales are, in contrast, relatively few in number, as oceanographic observations

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Kathleen A. Edwards and Kathryn A. Kelly

broadens through autumn to ∼800 km in width, generating eddies throughout the transitional subregion. In late autumn/winter, the CC collapses with the breakdown of steady wind forcing. The effect of this sequence on the heat budget motivates this study. Here the focus is on the seasonal time scale, which in the CC region accounts for 5%–80% of heat storage variability (higher values offshore), based on the SODA model ( Carton et al. 2000 ). Prior studies indicate the expected characteristics of the

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Jennifer K. Vanos, Jon S. Warland, Terry J. Gillespie, Graham A. Slater, Robert D. Brown, and Natasha A. Kenny

, presence of water, and alternating building heights can reduce the air temperature T a in an urban climate ( Eliasson et al. 2007 ; Watkins et al. 2007 ). According to Lin et al. (2010) , shading is an important component of long- and short-term outdoor TC, specifically within urban canyons ( Ali-Toudert and Mayer 2007 ). Hence, energy budgets and potential instances of heat stress are spatially variable, with effects of population characteristics, vegetation density, socioeconomic factors, and

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Gregory R. Foltz, Claudia Schmid, and Rick Lumpkin

evidence of strong seasonal cycles of near-surface salinity stratification [i.e., the barrier layer, Tanguy et al. (2010) and Figs. 1d,h ], near-surface currents [ Stramma et al. (2005) and Figs. 1c,g ], and SST gradients ( Figs. 1a,e ) in the NETA that may contribute significantly to the mixed layer heat budget through the horizontal advection and vertical mixing terms. In this study, we analyze the mixed layer heat budget in the NETA using a combination of in situ, satellite, and reanalysis

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J. Stuart Godfrey, Rui-Jin Hu, Andreas Schiller, and R. Fiedler

summer and cause a weak monsoon. This is hard to understand, if the heat content difference is confined only to the surface mixed layer—SST anomalies within this layer should not last a year. However, if diathermal mixing in the Indian Ocean extends well below the surface mixed layer, it provides a means by which Meehl et al.’s mechanism may work. In this paper a simple model of the Indian Ocean heat budget system is developed, which may provide a useful, if crude, analog to the real world. a

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Gaël Alory and Gary Meyers

by Alory et al. (2007) , which concluded that ocean dynamics play a larger role in Indian Ocean warming than surface heat fluxes. To reach this goal, and more precisely to identify the mechanisms responsible for the equatorial SST warming, we make a long-term heat budget of the equatorial Indian Ocean surface layer. Data and models are presented in section 2 . Climate model simulations are compared to available long-term observations of oceanic temperature and heat fluxes in the tropical Indian

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Shenfu Dong, Sarah T. Gille, and Janet Sprintall

, while heat budgets in western boundary current regions are dominated by meridional geostrophic transport, geostrophic flow is expected to play a comparatively small role in the Southern Ocean. At the same time, the Southern Ocean experiences the largest surface westerly winds of the World Ocean, which are expected to drive large meridional Ekman transports. Southern Ocean air–sea exchanges are important for a broad range of reasons beyond their importance to the meridional overturning circulation

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