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Xujing Jia Davis, Lewis M. Rothstein, William K. Dewar, and Dimitris Menemenlis

exist: seasonal and interannual. The seasonal cycle of model NPSTMW formation, isolation, and dissipation is described in detail. The interannual regime of model NPSTMW variability is shown to be closely tied to the phase change of the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) index. This connection is more clearly seen through an analysis of interannual changes in basin-wide wind stress and surface heat flux. 2. Model description This study is based on a global ocean simulation made available by the

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Daisuke Hotta and Hisashi Nakamura

from the Sea of Japan, and then it receives a greater amount of latent heat when traveling over the Tsushima warm current. After traversing the Japanese Islands, it experiences further latent heating over the Kuroshio or its extension ( Taguchi et al. 2009 ). Hence, unlike in the North Atlantic, the very cold continental air does not directly encounter the zone of strong meridional SST gradient over the Kuroshio–Oyashio Extension. Nevertheless, the continental air that has been warmed in traveling

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Mototaka Nakamura and Shozo Yamane

also show some heat release to the atmosphere off the east coast of the Japanese Main Island, despite the small magnitude and unorganized structure of the SSTA ( Fig. 8c ). Although these small-scale features may be artifacts introduced by the production process of the reanalyes products, the close correspondence in the structure of anomalous SST and F h in most of these cases is suggestive of the direct thermal oceanic forcing of the atmosphere to say the least. Among these cases, as mentioned

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Haiming Xu, Hiroki Tokinaga, and Shang-Ping Xie

( Janjić 1994 ), and the Kain–Fritsch cumulus parameterization ( Kain and Fritsch 1990 , 1993 ). The MYJ surface layer scheme ( Janjić 1996 , 2002 ) is used to compute roughness length, friction velocities, exchange coefficients, and sea surface fluxes. This surface layer scheme is based on Monin–Obukhov similarity theory. Surface exchange coefficients for heat, moisture, and momentum are estimated using stability functions from Paulson (1970) , Dyer and Hicks (1970) , and Webb (1970) . The

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Lu Anne Thompson and Young-Oh Kwon

both the subtropical and subpolar gyres qualitatively correct, once biases in wind stress are taken into account [see Thompson and Cheng (2008) for further discussion of wind stress–forced ocean biases in CCSM3.0]. Biases in mean surface heat and freshwater fluxes for the most part occur because of biases in ocean circulation. They do not originate in the atmospheric component of the model ( Thompson and Cheng 2008 ). However, when one looks in more detail at the western boundary current

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Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Shoshiro Minobe, and Shang-Ping Xie

the Gulf Stream associated with convection and surface convergence, although their analyses are limited to areas near the coastal region. Gulf Stream SST and its gradient also affect synoptic cyclogenesis ( Pope 1968 ; Cione et al. 1993 ; Giordani and Caniaux 2001 ). Strong surface fluxes from the ocean to the atmosphere occur in cold air outbreaks associated with extratropical cyclones ( Zolina and Gulev 2003 ). Surface heat fluxes help form surface baroclinicity and a “storm track,” a possible

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