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M. P. Calef
,
A. D. McGuire
, and
F. S. Chapin III

nontrivial impact on area burned over recent decades” ( Cumming 2005 ). The extent of human impact on natural fires varies among regions in interior Alaska ( DeWilde 2003 ). Human influence on fire can be measured by the number of human fire starts and the total area burned by both human- and lightning-caused fires. Therefore, we analyzed the geographic relationships (nearest distance) between fire locations, both in terms of ignitions and area burned, and settlements, major highways, and major rivers in

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Yan Li
,
Lijuan Zhu
,
Xinyi Zhao
,
Shuangcheng Li
, and
Yan Yan

better characterize the urbanization process and to develop a more suitable station classification scheme, researchers should concentrate on the mechanisms of urbanization influence on temperature change. In general, the urbanization impact on temperature depends on two main aspects including changes in land surface properties, such as changes in surface albedo, roughness, and heat capacity, and human activity within a city, which releases anthropogenic heat and other pollutants. Land cover change

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Austin Harris
,
Paul Roebber
, and
Rebecca Morss

meteorological characteristics, traditional verification metrics should be supplemented with new approaches that measure how forecasts and their errors influence societal impacts of interest, such as evacuation outcomes. One approach for such work is using computational models to run virtual experiments studying evacuation behaviors across hurricane forecast scenarios. Here, we demonstrate this potential by using a coupled natural–human model named Forecasting Laboratory for Exploring the Evacuation system

Open access
Maria M. Kvalevåg
and
Gunnar Myhre

1. Introduction A decline in solar radiation has been observed at the surface ( Liepert 2002 ; Stanhill and Cohen 2001 ). Called global dimming, this decline is presumed to be a consequence of an increased amount of scattering and absorbing aerosols and gases in the atmosphere from human activity and is likely to be linked to the reduced pan evaporation ( Roderick and Farquhar 2002 ). Alpert et al. (2005) pointed out that the larger the population the stronger the decline in surface solar

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Kirk Zmijewski
and
Richard Becker

water now supports large irrigated agricultural regions and also Uzbekistan’s cotton industry, which is the fifth largest exporter in the world ( CIA 2012 ). Additionally, human population since 1960 in the Aral Sea watershed has grown from 15 million to over 65 million increasing the demand for both food and water ( Vörösmarty et al. 2000 ). Figure 1. Location map: The location and extent of the Aral Sea watershed. Lakes and reservoirs are shown in gray outline and the reservoir and dam locations

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Roland J. Viger
,
Lauren E. Hay
,
Steven L. Markstrom
,
John W. Jones
, and
Gary R. Buell

because it is one of only 40 rivers within the conterminous United States that flows unimpeded for more than 320 km ( Morris 2009 ). It contains many water-storing surface depressions, including officially designated wetland areas such as the Great Swamp and the Chickasawatchee Swamp, and supports a diversity of plant and animal life. The Flint River is also important to human populations because it is a major water supply for the states of Georgia and Florida and because it has flooded several cities

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James E. Overland
,
Elizabeth Siddon
,
Gay Sheffield
,
Thomas J. Ballinger
, and
Cody Szuwalski

Publisher Note: By author request, this manuscript has been returned to peer review for further revision and the full text of the Early Online Release has been temporarily removed.

Abstract

Our goal is to tie climate scale meteorology to regional physics and ecosystem changes, and on to human impacts. There was record minimum sea-ice cover during winter 2018 and 2019 in the Bering Sea, with continuing multi-year impacts on the marine ecosystem and human activities. The back-to-back sea-ice minimums during 2018 and 2019 were certainly unexpected, given the normal large year-to-year variability of storms for the northern Bering Sea. Ecological shifts indicated reorganization of the northern marine food web that included loss of sea-ice algae and young crabs, and predatory cod and pollock moving north impacting lower trophic levels. Possible direct impacts from sea-ice loss and warmer temperatures included increased seabird and ice-associated seal emaciation and mortality, and increased harmful algal blooms. These changes affected regional food security, human/wildlife health, cultural activities, and marine wildlife conservation. Global warming initiated these events through a weakened atmospheric Arctic Front that promotes a self-reinforcing cycle of sea-ice loss, warmer temperatures, southerly winds and a wavy jet stream. Resulting impacts to livelihoods in the northern Bering Sea were commercial and non-commercial subsistence acquisition of essential marine resources for sale and direct consumption. Interannual variability is still important; during 2022 and 2023 the Aleutian Low pressure system was regionally dominant and sea ice was near the climatological average. Projections for the next decades are for an increasing frequency of low sea-ice years and a continuing ecosystem transition impacting essential marine wildlife resources and residents of the coastal northern Bering Sea.

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Friederike E. L. Otto
,
Luke J. Harrington
,
David Frame
,
Emily Boyd
,
Kristian Cedervall Lauta
,
Michael Wehner
,
Ben Clarke
,
Emmanuel Raju
,
Chad Boda
,
Mathias Hauser
,
Rachel A. James
, and
Richard G. Jones

adverse impacts of climate change to be quantified, while at the same time others inquire as to whether current measures and efforts are commensurate with the challenges of climate change. As the climate is evolving quickly into the future, alongside other socioeconomic factors relevant to human and natural systems, it is not sufficient to assess impacts in climate sensitive systems without identifying the specific role of climate change. Currently there is a gap between what is perceived or assumed

Free access
Kristen Guirguis
,
Alexander Gershunov
,
Alexander Tardy
, and
Rupa Basu

–health relationships. Such information would be highly beneficial for making informed decisions about when to issue a warning, which could prevent heat-related illnesses and save lives. There have been many studies investigating the impacts of extreme heat on human health (e.g., Basu and Samet 2002 ; Martiello and Giacchi 2010 ). Most of this work has focused on health impacts that are related to daily ambient apparent temperatures observed throughout the summer (e.g., Basu 2009 ; Basu et al. 2008 , 2012

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Chuanguo Yang
,
Zhaohui Lin
,
Zhongbo Yu
,
Zhenchun Hao
, and
Shaofeng Liu

values, respectively. A better water balance is obtained with a WBI of 0.948 when the withdrawal is included. The WBI fell below 1.0 for the first time in this study, which indicates the probable existence of return flow in the withdrawal, for example, irrigation. d. Simulation of human activities’ impacts An alternative way to represent the effect of human activity is to integrate a new module in the coupled model system. In a river basin, parts of surface runoff and channel flow are usually dammed

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