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G. T. Aronica and B. Bonaccorso

1. Introduction In recent years, an increasing attention has been paid to hydropower generation, since it is a renewable, efficient, and reliable source of energy, as well as an asset to reduce the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases resulting from human activities. At the same time, however, hydropower is among the most vulnerable industries to global warming, because water resources are closely linked to climate changes. Indeed, the effects of climate change on water availability

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Nathalie Voisin, Alan F. Hamlet, L. Phil Graham, David W. Pierce, Tim P. Barnett, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

1. Introduction and background a. Energy terms and units A discussion of terms and units used throughout the paper is warranted given the many different terms that are used to describe energy-related variables. In a strict physical definition, power and energy are related by time (i.e., energy production is power integrated with respect to time). However, in common usage, “hydropower generation” and “electrical power” are terms that are often used to describe energy production or energy demand

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A. Sankarasubramanian, Upmanu Lall, Naresh Devineni, and Susan Espinueva

for the Columbia River, Hamlet et al. (2002) have shown that long-lead streamflow forecasts can be effectively utilized in operating reservoirs to obtain increased annual average hydropower. In a similar way, coupled hydraulic–hydrologic prediction models with robust forecast-control methods could also result in increased resiliency of reservoir systems to climate variability and change ( Georgakakos et al. 1998 ). Also, climate- information-based streamflow forecasts could also be effectively

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S. Jerez, R. M. Trigo, S. M. Vicente-Serrano, D. Pozo-Vázquez, R. Lorente-Plazas, J. Lorenzo-Lacruz, F. Santos-Alamillos, and J. P. Montávez

Iberian countries, Portugal and Spain, are especially sensitive and committed to these concerns, having increasingly funded hydropower, wind, and, more recently, solar plants ( Campo 1992 ; Stenzel and Frenzel 2008 ; Caldés et al. 2009 ). Hydropower (HP; definitions of some of the key acronyms used in this paper also appear in appendix B for ready reference) is the most mature and productive renewable energy source in Iberia, as it was developed in large-scale between the 1950s and 1980s. Nowadays

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Kevin M. Moore and Bernard J. Morzuch

sampling withrespect to alternative pollution abatement strategies. The critical low stream flow months of August 196677 for a New England river basin are examined in a restricted ordinary least-squares regression analysisusing daily river flows as hydrologic variables, daily precipitation, and policy variables representing hydropower generating practices. Posterior probabilities for discrete states of water flow/quality are calculatedfrom forecast confidence intervals.1. Introduction The purpose of

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C. Oludhe, A. Sankarasubramanian, Tushar Sinha, Naresh Devineni, and Upmanu Lall

the confidence of stakeholders toward application of climate information for water management. The main intent of this study is to evaluate the performance of probabilistic streamflow forecasts developed from single-GCM and from multimodel climate forecasts in improving the hydropower generation for the Tana River basin, Kenya. The Tana River basin accounts for about 57% of the total hydropower generated in Kenya and our analysis is focused on the Masinga Reservoir system, which accounts for about

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Edwin P. Maurer and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

-yr 1930s drought ( Lund and Ferreira 1996 ) and the 1881 flood of record ( COE 1999 ). The system is currently operated to provide hydropower, flood control, navigation, water supply, recreation, and environmental mitigation benefits, although evacuating storage for spring runoff and releasing sufficient flow for downstream navigation largely drive the annual system operation. For example, the total annual requirements for irrigation, municipal, industrial, livestock, and all water uses in

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Mu Xiao, Bart Nijssen, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

1. Introduction Drought, which is usually defined as an extended period when water availability is anomalously low in terms of accumulated precipitation (meteorological drought), soil moisture (agricultural drought), or runoff (hydrological drought), can cause large economic losses and inconvenience or suffering to humans. Agriculture, municipalities, hydropower, recreation, and the natural environment all require adequate water. Dilley and Heyman (1995) report that droughts killed 1

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Yiping Wu and Ji Chen

1. Introduction Currently, a total volume of 8300 km 3 of water can be impounded by the man-made reservoirs in the world ( Chao et al. 2008 ), which is about four times the average water storage in global river channels (about 2120 km 3 ) and about one-fifth of the global annual river discharge—45 500 km 3 yr −1 ( Baumgartner and Reichel 1975 ; Oki and Kanae 2006 ). Therefore, it is evident that reservoir outflows, which include the release of the reservoir water to supply the hydropower

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N. Voisin, M. Kintner-Meyer, D. Wu, R. Skaggs, T. Fu, T. Zhou, T. Nguyen, and I. Kraucunas

.), sometimes combined with hydrology simulations, to assess how low-water conditions could reduce hydropower generation as well as the capacity of thermoelectric plants as a result of constrained withdrawals ( Macknick et al. 2012 ; Tidwell et al. 2012 ; Poch et al. 2009 ; Boehlert et al. 2016 ; Kao et al. 2015 ). Forward-looking analyses and modeling of the energy–water nexus is an emerging area of research. For example, Tidwell et al. (2016) combined water withdrawal estimates and simulated natural

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