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Florence Chen
,
Sarah Friedman
,
Charles G. Gertler
,
James Looney
,
Nizhoni O’Connell
,
Katie Sierks
, and
Jerry X. Mitrovica

1. Introduction The marine isotope stage 11 (MIS11) interglacial was a period of protracted ice age warmth ~400 kyr (~400 000 yr) ago that is commonly cited as a natural laboratory for assessing the stability of polar ice sheets in the face of ongoing global warming (e.g., Hearty et al. 1999 ; Roberts et al. 2012 ). However, the peak globally averaged eustatic sea level (ESL) during MIS11 has been a matter of controversy ( Hearty et al. 1999 ; McMurtry et al. 2007 ; Hearty and Olson 2008

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Kerry H. Cook
and
Isaac M. Held

AUGUST1988 KERRY H. COOK AND ISAAC M, HELD 807Stationary Waves of the Ice Age Climate KERRY H. COOK AND ISAAC M. HELDGeophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory/NOAA, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey(Manuscript received 28 December 1987, in final form 25 April 1988) ABSTRACT A linearized, steady state, primitive equation model is used to simulate the climatological zonal

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Markus Jochum
,
Zanna Chase
,
Roman Nuterman
,
Joel Pedro
,
Sune Rasmussen
,
Guido Vettoretti
, and
Peisong Zheng

. Bryan , K. , and L. J. Lewis , 1979 : A water mass model of the World Ocean . J. Geophys. Res. , 84 , 2503 – 2517 , https://doi.org/10.1029/JC084iC05p02503 . Buizert , C. , and Coauthors , 2015a : Precise interpolar phasing of abrupt climate change during the last ice age . Nature , 520 , 661 – 665 , https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14401 . Buizert , C. , and Coauthors , 2015b : The WAIS Divide deep ice core WD2014 chronology—Part 1: Methane synchronization (68–31 ka BP

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Peter D. Ditlevsen
and
Ove D. Ditlevsen

1. Introduction The Dansgaard–Oeschger (DO) events of rapid climate shifts in the glacial climate observed in the Greenland ice cores are still not well understood. It is debated to which extent this is either a regional or a more global in nature phenomenon ( Wunsch 2006 ), but it seems to be agreed that there are two quasi-stationary climate states: the glacial or stadial and the DO or interstadial states. These represent reorganizations of the climate system either related to changes in the

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G. DeBlonde
and
W. R. Peltier

APRIL 1993 DEBLONDE AND PELTIER '709Late Pleistocene Ice Age Scenarios Based on Observational Evidence G. DEBLONDEThe Canada Center for Remote Sensing, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada W. R. PELTIERDepartment of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada(Manuscript received and in final form 27 September 1991)ABSTRACT Ice age scenarios for the last glacial

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Flavio Lehner
,
Andreas Born
,
Christoph C. Raible
, and
Thomas F. Stocker

1. Introduction The past 1000 years are a prime target for studies of internal variability of the climate system because of the relatively weak orbital and solar forcing and the abundance of climate proxy reconstructions. The most prominent departures from the mean climate trend during that time were the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) from ~950 to 1250 AD, a relatively warm period with stronger solar irradiance, and the subsequent Little Ice Age (LIA) from ~1400 to 1700 AD, a cooling period of

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Bo Christiansen
and
Fredrik Charpentier Ljungqvist

associated with the Medieval Warm Period ( Bradley et al. 2003 ; Broecker 2001 ; Esper and Frank 2009 ; Hughes and Diaz 1994 ; Lamb 1977 ) and the Little Ice Age ( Lamb 1977 ; Matthews and Briffa 2005 ; Wanner et al. 2008 ), respectively. The amplitude of the multidecadal to centennial preindustrial temperature variability ranges from ~0.2 to 1 K in the different reconstructions ( Esper et al. 2005a , b ; Jansen et al. 2007 ). All reconstruction methods rely on variations of linear regression

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W. Lawrence Gates

1844 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VoLvu~33The Numerical Simulation of Ice-Age Climate with a Global General Circulation iVioclel W. LAWRENCE GATESxThe Rand Corporation, Santa M'onica, Calif. 90406(Manuscript received 29 January 1976, in revised form 15 June 1976) ABSTRACT The global distribution of July climate has been simulated with a two

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Jill Williams
,
R. G. Barry
, and
W. M. Washington

VOL. 13, NO. 3 JOURNAl. OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY APRIL 1974Simulation of the Atmospheric Circulation Using the NCAR Global Circulation Model with Ice Age Boundary Conditions JILL WILLIAMS AND R. G. BARRYInstitute of Arctic and A lpine Research and Department of Geography, University of Colorado, Boulder 80302 W. M. WASHINGTON National Center for A lmospheric Research

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F. Prodi
and
L. Levi

JUNE 1980 F. PROD1 AND L. LEV1 1375Aging of Accreted IceF. PRODI AND L. LEVI'Laboratorio FISBAT-CNR, Reparto Nubi e Precipitazioni, Bologna, Italy(Manuscript received 12 October 1979, in final form 26 February 1980)ABSTRACTThe effect of annealing in accreted ice has been investigated for artificially grown ice deposits after-100 days of storage in a deep freeze unit. Cross sections of the cylindrical deposits have beencut and replicated soon after growth and after annealing to determine the

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