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Andreas Schmittner
,
Tiago A. M. Silva
,
Klaus Fraedrich
,
Edilbert Kirk
, and
Frank Lunkeit

( Schmittner et al. 2005 ). Here we attempt to further our understanding of the processes that drive the ocean circulation in coupled ocean–atmosphere models by studying the orographic effects of mountains and ice sheets. Model studies of the effects of mountains on the atmospheric circulation and climate have a long tradition ( Kitoh 2002 ; Manabe and Terpstra 1974 ); however, to our knowledge, no study to date has investigated the effects on the global ocean circulation. We will show that mountains and

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Glen E. Liston
and
Sebastian H. Mernild

freshwater runoff from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), and from glaciers and ice caps peripheral to the GrIS, follow these climate fluctuations ( Hanna et al. 2008 ; Rignot et al. 2008 ; Ettema et al. 2009 ). The associated glacial responses have been observed and marked by glaciers retreating and thinning along the periphery of the Ice Sheet ( Krabill et al. 2000 , 2004 ; Weidick and Bennike 2007 ). In general, approximately half of the mass loss from the GrIS originates from iceberg calving. These

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Diandong Ren
,
Rong Fu
,
Lance M. Leslie
,
Jianli Chen
,
Clark R. Wilson
, and
David J. Karoly

1. Introduction The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), because of its large size, unique location, and strong thermal contrast with adjacent open waters, has a strong influence on large-scale atmospheric variations ( Wallace 2000 ; Bromwich et al. 1999 ), and its melting has a potential influence on global sea level rise ( Yin et al. 2009 ). Its response to a warming climate and the resultant influence on global and regional climate is widely acknowledged ( Thomas 2001 ; Steffen and Box 2001

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Edward Hanna
,
Philippe Huybrechts
,
Konrad Steffen
,
John Cappelen
,
Russell Huff
,
Christopher Shuman
,
Tristram Irvine-Fynn
,
Stephen Wise
, and
Michael Griffiths

1. Introduction The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) contains ∼7.4-m global sea level equivalent and is vulnerable to ongoing anthropogenic climate change ( Gregory et al. 2004 ). Therefore, it is essential to establish its current state of mass balance and climatic sensitivity, and detect any warning signs that might be a guide to its future response. Observationally based studies have provided intriguing insights into recent mass balance changes of the GrIS. Airborne and satellite laser

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William H. Lipscomb
,
Jeremy G. Fyke
,
Miren Vizcaíno
,
William J. Sacks
,
Jon Wolfe
,
Mariana Vertenstein
,
Anthony Craig
,
Erik Kluzek
, and
David M. Lawrence

1. Introduction Most global climate models have not included interactive ice sheet models, in part because ice sheets were once thought to evolve only on time scales of centuries to millennia. Recent observations, however, have shown that ice sheets can respond to ocean and atmospheric changes on annual-to-decadal time scales and that mass loss from the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets has increased since the 1990s. In Greenland, atmospheric warming has led to greater mass loss through

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Jeremy G. Fyke
,
Lionel Carter
,
Andrew Mackintosh
,
Andrew J. Weaver
, and
Katrin J. Meissner

1. Introduction Ice shelves and ice sheets evolve in response to changes in oceanic and atmospheric boundary conditions. Recent dramatic losses of long-lived ice shelves in both hemispheres highlight the uniqueness of recent climate change and have focused attention on causal factors that promote ice shelf retreat. Ice shelves respond dynamically and thermodynamically to changes in underlying ocean temperature ( Holland et al. 2008a ) and surface air temperature (SAT). Several authors (e

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Luke D. Trusel
,
Jessica D. Kromer
, and
Rajashree Tri Datta

1. Introduction The Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) represents the largest potential source of global sea level rise. Understanding the factors that affect its mass balance is therefore critical for assessing current and future sea level change. Satellite observations indicate that the AIS has lost an average of 150 Gt yr −1 since 2002 ( Wiese et al. 2019 ), a rate that has increased over recent decades ( Shepherd et al. 2018 ; Rignot et al. 2019 ). These losses and their acceleration are

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Jason E. Box
and
William Colgan

1. Introduction Ice sheet mass balance exerts a significant influence on global mean sea level (e.g., Huybrechts et al. 2004 ; Church and White 2011 ), thermohaline circulation (e.g., Fichefet et al. 2003 ; Rahmstorf et al. 2005 ), and ocean sediment nutrient influx ( Rysgaard et al. 2003 ; Hasholt et al. 2006 ). A likely global sea level rise of 1 m or more by the century's end (e.g., Pfeffer et al. 2008 ) will come at massive infrastructural and livelihood costs. Ice flowing into the

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Jason E. Box

1. Introduction Ice sheet mass balance ( B ) exerts a significant influence on global mean sea level (e.g., Church and White 2011 ), thermohaline circulation (e.g., Fichefet et al. 2003 ; Rahmstorf et al. 2005 ), and ocean sediment nutrient influx ( Rysgaard et al. 2003 ; Hasholt et al. 2006 ). The B is often decomposed among 1) mass fluxes originating at the surface–atmosphere interface (the climatic surface mass balance including internal accumulation), hereafter B clim ( Cogley et al

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Frerk Pöppelmeier
,
Fortunat Joos
, and
Thomas F. Stocker

atmosphere ( Edwards et al. 1998 ; Weaver et al. 2001 ) but include modules that describe slow processes such as marine sediments and continental ice sheets ( Ganopolski et al. 2010 ; Tschumi 2009 ). Their application ranges from orbital-scale paleo simulations over detailed sensitivity assessments to large ensemble simulations, and they hence fill an important gap in the hierarchy of climate models. A number of EMICs now include nearly all components of the Earth system and in particular are coupled

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