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Takeshi Tamura, Kay I. Ohshima, Thorsten Markus, Donald J. Cavalieri, Sohey Nihashi, and Naohiko Hirasawa

coastal polynyas often freezes very rapidly. Thus, most of the polynya area is covered with thin ice, except possibly within 1 km from the coastline in winter ( Pease 1987 ). For instance, in the Ross Sea coastal polynya, ice thicknesses reach up to ∼0.2 m ( Jeffries and Adolphs 1997 ). Usually the thin ice region extends to no more than 100 km from the coastline ( Smith et al. 1990 ). The present study defines the combined open water area and thin ice region as a coastal polynya. With the microwave

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Peter Sutherland and Dany Dumont

al. 2004 ). In this work, ice internal stress is modeled using MC theory, and compressive stress is modeled using wave radiation stress. Wind stress and current stress are also easily included in the formulation presented. By balancing these forcing mechanisms, it is possible to estimate ice thickness in the MIZ. Previously, Dai et al. (2004) used floe–floe collisions to estimate a pressure force due to wave motions within the MIZ. They then equated that force to MC internal stress to estimate

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J. A. Dumas, G. M. Flato, and R. D. Brown

1. Introduction Results from models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project show a change in ice thickness in the central Arctic of roughly 1 m as a consequence of transient doubling of CO 2 , with an intermodel standard deviation of 0.5 m ( Flato and Participating CMIP Modelling Groups 2004 ). Walsh and Timlin (2003) examined the projected sea ice extent change in several of these models and found that, although the model results suggest essentially ice-free summer

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David E. Reed, Ankur R. Desai, Emily C. Whitaker, and Henry Nuckles

1. Introduction Across the Northern Hemisphere, lakes have been experiencing a shortening of ice duration as well as increased interannual variably of ice coverage ( Magnuson et al. 2000 ). Reduction of ice coverage and thickness are markers of ongoing climate change that is being observed in lakes ( Adrian et al. 2009 ). An overall trend of increasing water temperature has been observed at these lakes ( O’Reilly et al. 2015 ; Schmid et al. 2014 ; Schneider and Hook 2010 ) and decreasing

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Haruhiko Kashiwase, Kay I. Ohshima, Yasushi Fukamachi, Sohey Nihashi, and Takeshi Tamura

sea ice production in coastal polynyas can be obtained by heat budget calculation using thin ice thickness under the assumption that all heat loss from the ocean to the atmosphere is used for the freezing of seawater. Although this assumption implicitly ignores heat from the deeper ocean, it is reasonably valid because the temperature of entire water column is expected to be close to the freezing point (−1.8°C) over the shallow shelf region (≤200 m), where coastal polynyas frequently form, as

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Göran Björk, Christian Stranne, and Karin Borenäs

1. Introduction The Arctic pack ice has been reduced during the last decades, in terms of both area extent and volume. The ice extent at the summer minimum in September has shown a negative trend of around 11% per decade for the period 1979–2007 relative to the 1979 value ( Perovich and Richter-Menge 2009 ) based on satellite data, and the mean ice thickness has been reduced from 3.4 m in 1980 to about 2.3 m in 2000 according to submarine data ( Rothrock et al. 2008 ). Accompanying the overall

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Paul R. Holland, Nicolas Bruneau, Clare Enright, Martin Losch, Nathan T. Kurtz, and Ron Kwok

a quest to provide additional insight into these model weaknesses. A critical gap in our understanding of Antarctic sea ice and its trends is caused by the relative paucity of Antarctic ice thickness data. Though spatially widespread, in situ observations are severely lacking in spatial and temporal detail ( Worby et al. 2008 ). Ice thickness can be determined from satellite altimetry by measuring the ice freeboard and assuming that the ice is freely floating with some choice of ice, snow, and

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Alexander V. Wilchinsky and Daniel L. Feltham

independent of strain rate magnitude ( Rothrock 1975 ), and visual similarities of the sea ice cover to soil, which has been successfully modeled as a granular plastic. Rothrock (1975) related the yield-curve shape to ice thickness redistribution during pressure ridging. The dependence of ice stress on ice thickness depends upon the mode of failure. During pressure ridging, the ice cover first breaks in flexure into blocks and the ice stress is determined by the work required to move the ice blocks

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Mitchell Bushuk, Rym Msadek, Michael Winton, Gabriel A. Vecchi, Rich Gudgel, Anthony Rosati, and Xiaosong Yang

2015 ). Specifically, melt-season SIE and SIC anomalies tend to reemerge the following growth season, and growth-season anomalies tend to reemerge the following melt season. Reemergence mechanisms, related to sea surface temperature (SST) and sea level pressure (SLP) regime persistence, and sea ice thickness (SIT) persistence have been proposed for these two reemergence phenomena, respectively. The SST and SLP reemergence mechanisms are relevant for winter sea ice prediction, whereas the SIT

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W. D. Hibler III

DECEMBER 1980 W. D. H I B L E R I I I 1943Modeling a Variable Thickness Sea Ice Cover W. D. HIBLER IIICorps of Engineers, U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755(Manuscript received 2 May 1980, in final form 24 September 1980) ABSTRACT A numerical framework suitable for simulating a variable thickness sea ice

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