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Wondmagegn Yigzaw, Faisal Hossain, and Alfred Kalyanapu

1. Introduction The transformation of forestland to urbanized impervious areas can change the runoff generation potential of a given area in a watershed on a large scale. Increases in population, economic opportunities, and migration can also result in greater urbanization ( DeFries and Eshleman 2004 ; Cohen 2003 ). In general, human activities are the most land-cover-altering factors that lead to a change in the distribution of runoff patterns ( Alberti 1999 ). Under a normal hydrological

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Roland J. Viger, Lauren E. Hay, Steven L. Markstrom, John W. Jones, and Gary R. Buell

that lie along its path. Although early industry in the region was dominated by grist mills, irrigation-based agriculture is now important ( Morris 2009 ). Crops include peanuts, soybeans, and vegetables. Dairy, cattle, and hogs are also important agricultural commodities for the area. General patterns of water use in the basin were not considered hydrologically significant for this study. 3. Previous work Alley and Veenhuis ( Alley and Veenhuis 1983 , p. 313) state that “man-made impervious cover

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Rebecca D. Marjerison, M. Todd Walter, Patrick J. Sullivan, and Stephen J. Colucci

flash flood generation ( Fig. 4 ). To represent the physical processes underlying flash floods, we chose landscape variables of slope, percent impervious area, and soil saturated hydraulic conductivity ( k sat ). Basins with high average topographic slope are at particular risk for flash floods because high slopes increase the kinetic energy of surface runoff (e.g., Schmittner and Giresse 1996 ; Smith 2003 ). Average slope (percent change with elevation) was derived from the USGS National

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R. Hamdi, A. Deckmyn, P. Termonia, G. R. Demarée, P. Baguis, S. Vanhuysse, and E. Wolff

associated with land use changes over rapidly expanding urban areas like BCR. Specifically, the quantity of impervious surfaces is related to urban growth and urban density ( Fricke and Wolff 2002 ; Vanhuysse et al. 2006 ). The proportion of impervious surfaces has been reported to be a good indicator for the monitoring of the UHI. A positive correlation between the proportion of impervious surfaces and land surface temperatures was identified by Yuan and Bauer (2007) . The expansion of the built

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Young-Hee Ryu and Jong-Jin Baik

; Rizwan et al. 2008 ; Hidalgo et al. 2008 ). It is known that the UHI is caused by complex interactions among many factors, including decreased urban albedo (ALB), increased thermal mass per unit area, increased city roughness, increased anthropogenic heat released from buildings and vehicles, and decreased evaporative areas (fewer trees and more impervious materials) ( Taha et al. 1988 ). Even though these causative factors have long been established, their relative importance remains uncertain

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Shouraseni Sen Roy and Fei Yuan

characterized by the spread of nonevaporative impervious surfaces, representing those materials that do not absorb water or moisture, including such urban infrastructures as rooftops, streets, highways, parking lots, and sidewalks, etc. The quantity of impervious surfaces is related to urban growth and urban density ( Stankowski 1972 ; Rashed et al. 2005 ). The spatial structure of urban thermal patterns and urban heat balances are associated with urban surface characteristics. Therefore, urban

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Prathap Ramamurthy, Elie Bou-Zeid, James A. Smith, Zhihua Wang, Mary L. Baeck, Nicanor Z. Saliendra, John L. Hom, and Claire Welty

. 2007 ; Ching 1985 ). In urbanized areas, the natural vegetative cover is replaced by practically impervious built surfaces such as concrete and asphalt that overwhelmingly convert the available energy into sensible heat. Even pervious land covers in urban terrain (parks, lawns, etc.) are likely to be engineered and built with different soil and vegetation properties than their natural counterparts; they are hence not necessarily “natural.” Therefore, to distinguish the urban land-cover types in

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B. Offerle, C. S. B. Grimmond, K. Fortuniak, and W. Pawlak

less attention, although the spatial variability would be expected to be similar. Grimmond and Oke (2002) showed that local surface cover characteristics, such as fraction of vegetated and impervious surfaces or building morphometry and density function as important controls on surface energy balance (SEB) fluxes in cities. Urban surface flux parameterizations that incorporate such relations are able to reproduce fluxes in good agreement with observations ( Martilli et al. 2002 ; Masson et al

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Xuejian Cao, Guangheng Ni, Youcun Qi, and Bo Liu

the variability presented at the watershed/catchment scale, but an increase in actual heterogeneity inside the grid unit. Thus, subgrid routing processes between a variety of urban land cover components become normality and more complicated, i.e., the water exchange between the pervious and impervious areas may frequently occur, especially at the edge of the lawn and pavement ( Voter and Loheide 2018 ; Woznicki et al. 2018 ). In addition, given the runoff transportation from roofs to the

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Evan M. Oswald, Richard B. Rood, Kai Zhang, Carina J. Gronlund, Marie S. O’Neill, Jalonne L. White-Newsome, Shannon J. Brines, and Daniel G. Brown

, separately for both daily high and low. Fig . 1. Combined observational network in Detroit during the 2009 study, superimposed over a map of the area that shows impervious surface as captured by satellite imagery. Only western portions of the lakes are shown. c. General characterization of the IUSSVT and summer 2009 The histograms and the maximum and mean values of the range of SOSAs, of both daily extremes, were calculated during the study period. Student’s t tests were performed to confirm that the

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