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R. D. Sharman
,
L. B. Cornman
,
G. Meymaris
,
J. Pearson
, and
T. Farrar

,” “moderate,” “severe,” or “extreme” ( Federal Aviation Administration 2012 , their Table 7-1-9]. Although formal definitions of these severity categories are provided in terms of normal accelerations or airspeed fluctuations, in practice they are both subjective (based on aircrew interpretation) and aircraft dependent, making them ill suited for providing reliable and consistent maps of atmospheric turbulence levels. To address these deficiencies, an in situ turbulence-reporting algorithm ( Cornman et al

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Timothy J. Wagner
and
Ralph A. Petersen

1. Introduction Upper-air observations are critical for many aspects of operational meteorology. Forecasters, for example, rely on atmospheric profiles to assess atmospheric stability or the potential of hazardous precipitation types, while analyses of data assimilation (D/A) systems used in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models show that in situ profiles continue to play a prominent role in facilitating accurate forecast simulations ( Eyre and Reid 2014 ). Since their operational

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Michael Schindelegger
and
Richard D. Ray

oscillations over tropical landmasses, as documented in Schindelegger (2014) . Model discretizations and vertical domains may be revisited in a similar manner, taking into account that rigid-lid boundaries likely create spurious resonances of S 2 at the surface ( Hamilton et al. 2008 ). Assimilated samples of barometer recordings in each analysis cycle depart from an optimal spatiotemporal coverage, allowing the model physics or observations from other and probably less suited (non in situ) sensors to

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Bingkun Luo
,
Peter J. Minnett
,
Malgorzata Szczodrak
,
Nicholas R. Nalli
, and
Vernon R. Morris

studies have investigated the performance of MERRA-2 and ERA-Interim fields for a variety of applications. Some of the uncertainties result from systematic dependences such as inaccuracies in input measurements, residual diagnosis uncertainties, and imperfections of atmospheric transmittance simulations and of processing algorithms. Guan et al. (2018) used in situ airborne dropsonde observations to validate the MERRA-2 and ERA-Interim total water vapor transport; they pointed out that the reanalysis

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Zhaoxia Pu
,
Eric R. Pardyjak
,
Sebastian W. Hoch
,
Ismail Gultepe
,
A. Gannet Hallar
,
Alexei Perelet
,
Rebecca Beal
,
Gerardo Carrillo-Cardenas
,
Xin Li
,
Maria Garcia
,
Steven Oncley
,
William Brown
,
Jeffrey Anderson
,
Jacquelyn Witte
, and
Andrei Vakhtin

the mountainous conditions. Microphysical observations of cold-fog conditions are almost nonexistent in mountainous regions. The representativeness of in situ fog observations, such as visibility measurements in mountain valleys, is also generally poor due to the heterogeneous nature of the terrain and land cover. Some active satellites (e.g., CloudSat , CALIPSO ) also have limited capabilities to observe fog due to limitations in their sampling frequencies and coverage, as well as vertical

Open access
N. Dumelié
,
J.-P. Vernier
,
G. Berthet
,
H. Vernier
,
J.-B. Renard
,
N. Rastogi
,
F. Wienhold
,
D. Combaz
,
M. Angot
,
J. Burgalat
,
F. Parent
,
N. Chauvin
,
G. Albora
,
P. Dagaut
,
R. Benoit
,
M. Kovilakam
,
C. Crevoisier
, and
L. Joly

vertical resolution from SAGE III depicts a double peak structure (e.g., in January 2022 near 12.5 and 17.5 km) likely pointing to different injection processes and/or airmass origins in the lowermost stratosphere, possibly due to long-range transport of fire smoke. These results are consistent with in situ balloon-borne observations conducted during the REAS campaign. Figure 8 shows concentration profiles for sizes greater than 0.15 μ m obtained by the Particle Plus Optical Particle Counter (POPC

Open access
Andrea Storto
,
Matthew J. Martin
,
Bruno Deremble
, and
Simona Masina

dynamical) air–sea coupling. As a proof of concept, the analysis scheme is applied to the problem of assessing the impact of the in situ ocean and atmosphere observing networks on coupled short-range (up to 7 days) forecast skill scores. With this configuration, strongly coupled data assimilation is evaluated with respect to weakly coupled data assimilation for the two cases where either oceanic or atmospheric observations are assimilated. Experiments that simultaneously assimilate both observing

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Dongxiao Wang
,
Lili Zeng
,
Xixi Li
, and
Ping Shi

closure in the atmospheric and oceanic water and energy balances. Unfortunately, heir data, which start with the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) in 2003, do not cover the period in this study. Our continuous in situ measurements in the SCS should make a contribution to future validations. With the construct of new atmospheric stations on the islands in the SCS, we will have long time series of meteorological observations to propose new algorithms or refine

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Shawn R. Smith
,
Kristen Briggs
,
Nicolas Lopez
, and
Vassiliki Kourafalou

improving numerical models can best be achieved using high-quality evaluation datasets. Herein we demonstrate the application of in situ observations collected by automated instrumentation on ships at sampling rates ≤5 min as a means to evaluate numerical model analyses. The focus is on physical oceanographic parameters (velocity, salinity, and sea temperature); however, the techniques demonstrated could be applied using atmospheric, chemical, or biological measurements from similar vessels. The use of

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Remon Sadikni
,
Nils H. Schade
,
Axel Andersson
,
Annika Jahnke-Bornemann
,
Iris Hinrichs
,
Lydia Gates
,
Birger Tinz
, and
Detlef Stammer

not specifically created with high-resolution for any region. In essence, atmospheric reanalyses are not suited without limitation and further assessment as a reference dataset in the North Sea region. Few gridded reference datasets exist for regional analyses over land and are primarily based on in situ observations, such as the European daily high-resolution gridded dataset (E-OBS; Haylock et al. 2008 ; van den Besselaar et al. 2011 ). There are no such reference datasets of the marginal seas

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