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Min Wen, Tim Li, Renhe Zhang, and Yanjun Qi

Goswami 2004 ). Kiladis et al. (1994) and Kiladis and Wheeler (1995) noted that equatorially symmetric Rossby waves in the period of 6–30 days appear over the tropical Pacific, and those waves move westward with eastward energy dispersion. Wen and Zhang (2008) detected Rossby wave–like circulation related to the QBWO over the eastern tropical Indian Ocean (IO) in boreal spring. They suggested that feedbacks among the convection, Rossby wave response, and associated low-level circulation are

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Chie Ihara, Yochanan Kushnir, and Mark A. Cane

1. Introduction Though there had been earlier studies of the interannual variability of the zonal sea surface temperature (SST) gradient over the equatorial Indian Ocean (e.g., Saha 1970 ; Reverdin et al. 1986 ), after Saji et al. (1999) and Webster et al. (1999) discovered a phenomenon that includes both atmospheric and oceanic variables and called it the Indian Ocean dipole mode or Indian Ocean zonal mode, the number of studies related to this phenomenon increased dramatically

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Jing-Jia Luo, Ruochao Zhang, Swadhin K. Behera, Yukio Masumoto, Fei-Fei Jin, Roger Lukas, and Toshio Yamagata

1. Introduction El Niño and extreme Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) are two dominant drivers for year-to-year climate variability on earth. Predicting those climate modes is of great value because of their large environmental and societal effects, both globally and regionally. El Niño is now generally predictable at a lead time of several seasons (e.g., Palmer et al. 2004 ; Luo et al. 2005a ; Saha et al. 2006 ; Jin et al. 2008 ), and it may be predicted even up to two years in advance for

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Li Shi, Harry H. Hendon, Oscar Alves, Jing-Jia Luo, Magdalena Balmaseda, and David Anderson

. 1998 , 2011 ; Kirtman et al. 2001 ; Alves et al. 2003 ; Palmer et al. 2004 ; Luo et al. 2005 ; Saha et al. 2006 ; Jin et al. 2008 ; Wang et al. 2009 ), there is a growing appreciation of the role of coupled atmosphere–ocean variability in the other tropical ocean basins for driving predictable climate variability. We focus here on SST variations in the tropical Indian Ocean, which are a primary source of seasonal climate variability throughout the adjoining landmasses of eastern Africa (e

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James T. Potemra and Niklas Schneider

1. Introduction The Indian Ocean receives heat and mass from the Pacific at a low latitude via the Indonesian throughflow (ITF; see Godfrey 1996 for a review). A potential consequence is that variations in Indian Ocean temperature may not be only a result of atmospheric forcing over the Indian Ocean, but also may be influenced by changes in the ITF. An important question, and the focus of this study, is to what degree low-frequency changes in upper-ocean temperatures in the Indian Ocean are

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Renguang Wu and Ben P. Kirtman

ASM variability. It has been noted that sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the Indian Ocean and in the neighboring seas contribute to the ASM variability (e.g., Streten 1981 ; Hackert and Hastenrath 1986 ; Nicholls 1989 ; Joseph et al. 1991 ; Simmonds and Rocha 1991 ; Frederiksen and Balgovind 1994 ; Drosdowsky 1996 ; Frederiksen et al. 1999 ; Drosdowsky and Chambers 2001 ; Watterson 2001 ; Hendon 2003 ; Yoo et al. 2006 ). Previous studies indicate that the Indian Ocean SST

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Motoki Nagura and Shinya Kouketsu

the Atlantic Ocean on 25–26 σ θ ( Lazar et al. 2001 ; Laurian et al. 2006 ; Qu et al. 2016 ). In contrast to the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, there is only one study to our knowledge that examined spiciness anomalies in the upper pycnocline of the Indian Ocean. Li and Wang (2015) used a dataset based on Argo float observations and examined spatial and temporal variations of spiciness anomalies in the Indian Ocean focusing on the 24–25 σ θ surfaces. They found a large amplitude of anomalies

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Weiqing Han, Julian P. McCreary, Yukio Masumoto, Jérôme Vialard, and Benét Duncan

1. Introduction a. Background 1) Observations Observations from the equatorial Indian Ocean (IO) show particularly strong semiannual (180-day period) zonal surface currents, with eastward flow occurring during spring and fall (e.g., Wyrtki 1973 ; O’Brien and Hurlburt 1974 ; Knox 1976 ; Luyten and Roemmich 1982 ; McPhaden 1982 ; Gent et al. 1983 ; Molinari et al. 1990 ; Anderson and Carrington 1993 ; Donguy and Meyers 1995 ; Reppin et al. 1999 ). The semiannual current is much stronger

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Mathew Koll Roxy, Kapoor Ritika, Pascal Terray, and Sébastien Masson

1. Introduction A handful of studies have been devoted to the cause and effect of basinwide Indian Ocean warming ( Alory et al. 2007 ; Chambers et al. 1999 ; Dong et al. 2014 ; Du and Xie 2008 ; Klein et al. 1999 ; Rao et al. 2012 ; Swapna et al. 2014 ), yet the reasons behind the steady and prominent warming remain ambiguous and are still debated. These studies have shown that the entire Indian Ocean has been warming throughout the past half century. A close examination of the sea

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Caroline C. Ummenhofer, Arne Biastoch, and Claus W. Böning

1. Introduction Changes over the past two decades in upper-ocean temperatures in the Indian Ocean have recently received increasing attention (e.g., Vialard 2015 ). The Indian Ocean 100–300-m depth layer has warmed significantly since 2003 ( Nieves et al. 2015 ). Rapid increases are also seen in the top 700-m Indian Ocean heat content since the early 2000s ( Lee et al. 2015 ), concurrent with an increased heat transport from the Pacific to the Indian Ocean through the Indonesian Throughflow

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