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S. Sivareddy
,
M. Ravichandran
, and
M. S. Girishkumar

varies over different oceans due to atmospheric and marine peculiarities of each basin. These peculiarities include seasonal variability of wind and rainy conditions. Such studies emphasize the need for validation in the tropical Indian Ocean region, which is known to have peculiar variabilities in the ocean–atmospheric parameters. It is clear from the above discussion that a consolidated report on the accuracy of DASCAT in the tropical Indian Ocean based on surface observations is missing. This is

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Debasis Sengupta
,
Retish Senan
,
B. N. Goswami
, and
Jérôme Vialard

1. Introduction The availability of new high-frequency satellite wind data and in situ observations is an important development in the study of the equatorial Indian Ocean (EqIO) because they help to resolve the subseasonal variability ( Sengupta et al. 2004 ; Masumoto et al. 2005 ). Accurate estimates of surface winds with high time and space resolutions from the Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT) are available from July 1999 onward ( Liu 2002 ; Chelton et al. 2001 ). The first direct

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Yuhong Zhang
,
Yan Du
, and
Ming Feng

decadal adjustment of the Walker circulation of the Indo-Pacific ( Du et al. 2015 ). El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) induced strong interannual variability of SSS in the tropical Pacific ( Delcroix and McPhaden 2002 ; Singh et al. 2011 ; Qu and Yu 2014 ; Qu et al. 2014 ). Strong salinity variations have also been found to be associated with the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) events ( Masson et al. 2004 ; Thompson et al. 2006 ; Vinayachandran and Nanjundiah 2009 ; Grunseich et al. 2011 ), and the

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Min Wen
,
Tim Li
,
Renhe Zhang
, and
Yanjun Qi

Goswami 2004 ). Kiladis et al. (1994) and Kiladis and Wheeler (1995) noted that equatorially symmetric Rossby waves in the period of 6–30 days appear over the tropical Pacific, and those waves move westward with eastward energy dispersion. Wen and Zhang (2008) detected Rossby wave–like circulation related to the QBWO over the eastern tropical Indian Ocean (IO) in boreal spring. They suggested that feedbacks among the convection, Rossby wave response, and associated low-level circulation are

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Janet Sprintall
,
Motoki Nagura
,
Juliet Hermes
,
M. K. Roxy
,
Michael J. McPhaden
,
E. Pattabhi Rama Rao
,
Srinivasa Kumar Tummala
,
Sidney Thurston
,
Jing Li
,
Mathieu Belbeoch
, and
Victor Turpin

The Indian Ocean is the third largest body of water in the world and this huge geographic expanse is home to some 30% of the global population. The size and diversity of the Indian Ocean region have propelled its emergence as a pivotal conduit for trade, commerce, and energy. In addition, the ocean–atmosphere interactions in the Indian Ocean affect global weather and climate variability on intraseasonal to decadal time scales through far field teleconnections driven by phenomena such as the

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Muhammad Adnan Abid
,
Fred Kucharski
,
Franco Molteni
,
In-Sik Kang
,
Adrian M. Tompkins
, and
Mansour Almazroui

tropospheric (e.g., Moron and Gouirand 2003 ; Scaife et al. 2017 ; King et al. 2018a ; Ayarzagüena et al. 2018 ; Mezzina et al. 2019 ) as well as through stratospheric pathways (e.g., Ineson and Scaife 2009 ; Sigmond et al. 2013 ; Domeisen et al. 2015 ; Ayarzagüena et al. 2019 ; and others), but our understanding of this response transition is still incomplete. In the current study, we are focusing on the role of forcing from heating anomalies in the tropical Indian Ocean and the central

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Chie Ihara
,
Yochanan Kushnir
, and
Mark A. Cane

1. Introduction Though there had been earlier studies of the interannual variability of the zonal sea surface temperature (SST) gradient over the equatorial Indian Ocean (e.g., Saha 1970 ; Reverdin et al. 1986 ), after Saji et al. (1999) and Webster et al. (1999) discovered a phenomenon that includes both atmospheric and oceanic variables and called it the Indian Ocean dipole mode or Indian Ocean zonal mode, the number of studies related to this phenomenon increased dramatically

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James T. Potemra
and
Niklas Schneider

1. Introduction The Indian Ocean receives heat and mass from the Pacific at a low latitude via the Indonesian throughflow (ITF; see Godfrey 1996 for a review). A potential consequence is that variations in Indian Ocean temperature may not be only a result of atmospheric forcing over the Indian Ocean, but also may be influenced by changes in the ITF. An important question, and the focus of this study, is to what degree low-frequency changes in upper-ocean temperatures in the Indian Ocean are

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Jing-Jia Luo
,
Ruochao Zhang
,
Swadhin K. Behera
,
Yukio Masumoto
,
Fei-Fei Jin
,
Roger Lukas
, and
Toshio Yamagata

1. Introduction El Niño and extreme Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) are two dominant drivers for year-to-year climate variability on earth. Predicting those climate modes is of great value because of their large environmental and societal effects, both globally and regionally. El Niño is now generally predictable at a lead time of several seasons (e.g., Palmer et al. 2004 ; Luo et al. 2005a ; Saha et al. 2006 ; Jin et al. 2008 ), and it may be predicted even up to two years in advance for

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Renguang Wu
and
Ben P. Kirtman

ASM variability. It has been noted that sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the Indian Ocean and in the neighboring seas contribute to the ASM variability (e.g., Streten 1981 ; Hackert and Hastenrath 1986 ; Nicholls 1989 ; Joseph et al. 1991 ; Simmonds and Rocha 1991 ; Frederiksen and Balgovind 1994 ; Drosdowsky 1996 ; Frederiksen et al. 1999 ; Drosdowsky and Chambers 2001 ; Watterson 2001 ; Hendon 2003 ; Yoo et al. 2006 ). Previous studies indicate that the Indian Ocean SST

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