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David R. Ryglicki, James D. Doyle, Yi Jin, Daniel Hodyss, and Joshua H. Cossuth

that given the structural differences between tropopause cyclonic and anticyclonic potential vorticity (PV) anomalies ( Hoskins et al. 1985 ; Wirth 2001 ), the strongest environmental winds associated with anticyclones are likely to be confined to a similar layer as the outflow from the TC—usually around 200 hPa ( Merrill and Velden 1996 ). Part I also demonstrated that before the eyes appeared in infrared (IR) and water vapor (WV), each storm exhibited what we referred to as a tilt

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Jie Feng and Xuguang Wang

and Pan 2006 ), and the Ferrier–Aligo microphysics scheme ( Ferrier 1994 , 2005 ), 2) the modified surface layer ( Kwon et al. 2010 ) and nonlocal planetary boundary layer ( Hong and Pan 1996 ) parameterization schemes, and 3) the Eta Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) longwave and shortwave radiation schemes ( Schwarzkopf and Fels 1991 ; Lacis and Hansen 1974 ). Note that the SAS cumulus scheme is only implemented for the outer two domains (i.e., 18- and 6-km grids), but not for the

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Shixuan Zhang, Zhaoxia Pu, and Christopher Velden

for TC applications is employed. This includes the modified GFDL surface-layer parameterization (e.g., Powell et al. 2003 ; Black et al. 2007 ; Kwon et al. 2010 ), the Noah land surface model (e.g., Chen and Dudhia 2001 ; Mitchell et al. 2005 ), the modified Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for general circulation models (RRTMG) shortwave and longwave radiation scheme (e.g., Iacono et al. 2008 ), the Ferrier–Aligo microphysical parameterization (e.g., Ferrier et al. 2002 ; Ferrier 2005

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