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Gabriele G. Pfister, Sebastian D. Eastham, Avelino F. Arellano, Bernard Aumont, Kelley C. Barsanti, Mary C. Barth, Andrew Conley, Nicholas A. Davis, Louisa K. Emmons, Jerome D. Fast, Arlene M. Fiore, Benjamin Gaubert, Steve Goldhaber, Claire Granier, Georg A. Grell, Marc Guevara, Daven K. Henze, Alma Hodzic, Xiaohong Liu, Daniel R. Marsh, John J. Orlando, John M. C. Plane, Lorenzo M. Polvani, Karen H. Rosenlof, Allison L. Steiner, Daniel J. Jacob, and Guy P. Brasseur

global forcing scale within a single framework. This vision motivates the development of Multi-Scale Infrastructure for Chemistry and Aerosols (MUSICA). MUSICA is not a single model, but a set of infrastructure concepts and requirements with rigorously defined standards that will enable studying atmospheric composition across all relevant scales. It describes a unified and modular framework with consistent scale-aware modeling approaches, i.e., approaches that are not dependent on model resolution

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Saumya Sarkar, Jonathan B. Butcher, Thomas E. Johnson, and Christopher M. Clark

1. Introduction Increased impervious surfaces and enhanced connectivity of drainage networks in urban areas lead to higher stormwater runoff volume and peaks and enhanced pollutant loads (e.g., Walsh et al. 2005 ). A variety of best management practices (BMPs) can be implemented to reduce the adverse impacts of urban stormwater. Traditional “gray” stormwater management infrastructure uses single-purpose, hard structures, including detention basins and storm sewers, to convey runoff. These

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Noam David, Omry Sendik, Hagit Messer, and Pinhas Alpert

The potential of cellular network infrastructure as a futuristic system for monitoring fog is introduced. The Glossary of Meteorology ( Glickman 2000 ) defines fog as water droplets suspended in the atmosphere near Earth’s surface that reduce visibility to less than 1 km. The intensity of fog can be characterized by its liquid water content (LWC) and its droplet number concentration N D or by the visibility existing in the area observed during the occurrence of the phenomenon. According to

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Tianyi Zhang, Xiaomao Lin, Danny H. Rogers, and Freddie R. Lamm

many options to adapt to drought, the conventional approach is the adoption of more technically efficient irrigation infrastructures ( Osteen et al. 2012 ; Zhang et al. 2015 ). According to a national U.S. irrigation survey ( Kenny et al. 2009 ), by 2005 a large portion of irrigation areas were equipped with sprinkler irrigation systems (12.3 million ha), which are slightly larger than the area irrigated by surface irrigation systems (10.8 million ha). Sprinkler irrigation exhibited 13% greater

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Lee Chapman and Simon J. Bell

Two use cases are presented for winter road maintenance and seasonal resilience on the railways to showcase the potentially transformative impact of the Internet of Things on observations and forecasting. The impacts of weather and climate on infrastructure are numerous. Whereas extreme events clearly pose the biggest challenges, significant opportunities to improve the resilience of infrastructure exist in the prediction of smaller “everyday” impacts where preventative action can be taken by

Open access
Tim Bardsley, Andrew Wood, Mike Hobbins, Tracie Kirkham, Laura Briefer, Jeff Niermeyer, and Steven Burian

United States ( Gillies et al. 2012 ; Knowles et al. 2006 ). If this trend continues, the region will see further decreases in snowpack, earlier snowmelt, and a shifting to earlier runoff ( Clow 2010 ; Barnett et al. 2005 ; Barnett et al. 2008 ). Prior studies project significant impacts on water providers' abilities to meet summer water demands with current water storage infrastructure ( Ray et al. 2008 ; Chambers 2008 ; Karl et al. 2009 ; Woodbury et al. 2012 ). Moreover, although traditional

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Ligia Bernardet, Laurie Carson, and Vijay Tallapragada

) has documented the existence of remaining impediments to the use of NCEP operational models in the research community, and recommended continued investment in a software environment that facilitates supporting those models for the community. Similar conclusions were reached by the UCACN, which explicitly recommended NOAA should devote resources to the creation of a modeling infrastructure to facilitate the use of operational suites by the research community. Given this demand, NOAA funded the DTC

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Ted S. Cress and Douglas L. Sisterson

start deployment of the first site, DOE named Doug Sisterson of Argonne National Laboratory as the site manager for the SGP. April 1992 was targeted as the start-up date for data to be generated at that site. Setting a target date accomplished two things: first, it removed the fear of delaying site deployment for the development of a perfect plan ( Stokes 2016 , chapter 2); second, it provided a firm timeline for the infrastructure to map actual deployment milestones. Proposals were requested from

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Michael A. Goldstein, Amanda H. Lynch, Ruitian Yan, Siri Veland, and William Talleri

Abstract

As Arctic open water increases, shipping activity to and from mid- and western- Russian Arctic ports to points south has notably increased. A number of Arctic municipalities hope increased vessel traffic will create opportunities to become a major transshipment hub. However, even with more traffic passing these ports, it might still be economically cheaper to offload cargo at a more southern port and also result in lower emissions; ultimately, the question of whether to use a transshipment in the Arctic vs. an established major European port is determined by the relative costs (or emissions) of sea vs. land travel.

This study calculates the relative competitiveness of six Norwegian coastal cities as multi-modal hubs for shipments. We quantify the relative prices and CO2 emissions for sea and land travel for routes starting at the Norwegian/Russian sea border with an ultimate destination in central Europe and find all existing routes are not competitive with routes using the major existing Port of Rotterdam; even with investments in port expansion and modernization, they would be underutilized regardless of an increase in vessel traffic destined for Central Europe. We then examine under what relative prices (emissions) these routes become economically viable or result in lower emissions than using existing southern ports. Notably, the cheapest routes generally produce the lowest emissions and the most expensive routes tend to have the largest emissions. Communities should consider relative competitiveness prior to making large infrastructure investments. While some choices are physically possible, they may not be economically viable.

Open access
Timothy C. Y. Chui, David Siuta, Gregory West, Henryk Modzelewski, Roland Schigas, and Roland Stull

’s Westgrid systems. Often such resources come with allocation time limits and long queue times. To avoid these problems, public cloud-computing infrastructure can provide a cost-effective, on-demand solution for atmospheric science research and real-time forecasting. “Public cloud infrastructure” refers to virtualized products and services provisioned by a commercial service provider for use by the general public for a fee ( Voorsluys et al. 2011 ). Examples of commercial cloud providers include the

Open access