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Ho Jin Lee, Jae-Hun Park, Mark Wimbush, Kyung Tae Jung, Chan Joo Jang, Yang-Ki Cho, Young-Kyo Seo, and Jong Ho Nam

effects on intermediate waters of the EJS using an eddy-resolving ocean general circulation model (OGCM) that can take account of multiple processes simultaneously. Tides in the EJS are not strong except in four shallow straits that connect it to the northwestern Pacific Ocean, but Park and Watts (2006) show that semidiurnal internal tides are generated near the shelf break of the southern Ulleung Basin and propagate into the interior of the EJS with a high-energy horizontal beam pattern

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Gerard McCarthy, Elaine McDonagh, and Brian King

reasons. First, the thermocline and intermediate waters are the water masses that constitute the return branch of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC; Donners and Drijfhout 2004 ; Gordon 1986 ). Thermocline and intermediate waters enter the South Atlantic from the Indian Ocean primarily via the transfer of Agulhas rings ( Lutjeharms 1996 ; de Ruijter et al. 1999 ). The exchange of this warmer, more saline, lower oxygen Indian Ocean Thermocline and Intermediate Water with the South Atlantic

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Francisco Machín, Josep L. Pelegrí, E. Fraile-Nuez, P. Vélez-Belchí, F. López-Laatzen, and A. Hernández-Guerra

). Both MW and AAIW are particularly important in the thermohaline circulation because young MW is one of the factors that affects deep water formation through the salinity of the North Atlantic Ocean, whereas old AAIW represents part of the final path for deep waters to return to the surface ocean ( Sloyan and Rintoul 2001 ; Saenko et al. 2003 ). These two globally important intermediate water masses are juxtaposed in the Canary Basin, with the potential for mixing between them. In January 1997

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Brian K. Arbic and W. Brechner Owens

expedition in the 1920s, the International Geophysical Year (IGY) in the late 1950s and early 1960s, and the pre-WOCE and WOCE programs of the 1980s and 1990s. Our analysis is clearly an extension of previous examinations of the changes at these sections. These include: Roemmich and Wunsch (1984) who found warming in intermediate waters and cooling in deeper waters between the 1950s and 1980s along 24° and 36°N; Parrilla et al. (1994) and Bryden et al. (1996) who found that this trend continued at

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Renske Gelderloos, Fiammetta Straneo, and Caroline A. Katsman

.75 psu isohaline, which we defined as the lower boundary of the cool and fresh upper layer. The thick black line is the σ θ = 27.72 kg m −3 isopycnal, which separates the LSW layer from the warm and saline intermediate layer. The dashed box indicates the GSA years. The upper 1500 m in the interior Labrador Sea broadly consist of three layers ( Straneo 2006a , b ; Yashayaev 2007 ). The upper layer, which typically occupies the upper ~200 m, is fed by the fresh and cold boundary current water of

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Alberto C. Naveira Garabato, Loïc Jullion, David P. Stevens, Karen J. Heywood, and Brian A. King

observed changes form part of a global-scale pattern of decadal warming and freshening (salinification) of mode and intermediate waters of subpolar (subtropical) origin. As pointed out in the report and in a number of studies cited therein, this pattern is a plausible major feature of the oceanic response to the global atmospheric warming and acceleration of the atmospheric hydrological cycle that are thought to have occurred in recent decades and that are consistent with model projections of climate

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Kathryn L. Gunn, Lisa M. Beal, Shane Elipot, K. McMonigal, and Adam Houk

.2 m s −1 weaker during ASCA than ACT which is likely due to an extreme meander event in July 2017 that pushed the core of the current 200 km away from the coastline. The velocity structure of the Agulhas Current, and other western boundary currents, maintains cross-stream salinity gradients in subtropical, central, and intermediate waters ( Figs. 3a,b ). Cross-stream salinity gradients are greatest within TSW and STSW, defined by γ < 26.4 kg m −3 , and are O (10 −3 ) psu km −1 ( Fig. 3a

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Alexander Sen Gupta and Matthew H. England

1. Introduction This paper extends the work of Sen Gupta and England (2004 , hereinafter Part I ), which identified the ventilation pathways and time scales of deep-water and bottom-water masses in an offline eddy-permitting ocean general circulation model (OGCM). Here we investigate the interior propagation pathways, time scales, and composition of intermediate-depth waters derived from the Southern Ocean. In particular, we consider ventilation between the depths of the σ 0 = 26.6 and σ 0

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Sunke Schmidtko and Gregory C. Johnson

, 2005 : Interdecadal water mass changes in the Southern Ocean between 30°E and 160°E . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 32 , L07607 , doi:10.1029/2004GL022220 . Arbic , B. K. , and W. B. Owens , 2001 : Climatic warming of Atlantic Intermediate Waters . J. Climate , 14 , 4091 – 4108 . Beal , L. M. , and Coauthors , 2011 : On the role of the Agulhas system in ocean circulation and climate . Nature , 472 , 429 – 436 . Bindoff , N. L. , and J. A. Church , 1992 : Warming of the water

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Lisa M. Beal

tropical surface water and subtropical surface water at γ = 25.5 (gray line) and between Red Sea water and Antarctic Intermediate Water at about γ = 27.3 (black line). Waters on the onshore side of the front, with negative relative vorticity, are shown as light gray dots, while those offshore with positive relative vorticity are darker gray. Fig . 3. Profiles of spice (black) and velocity anomaly (gray) within the RSW–AAIW density layer (27.0 < γ < 27.8) for the four sections across the Agulhas

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