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Masoud Moeini
and
Djordje Romanic

downbursts is different from that in an impinging jet because of the buoyancy forces, there are several reasons for applying an impinging-jet model (rather than a gravity-current model) as a working approximation. The near-surface kinematics of laboratory jets and downbursts are similar for modeling purposes ( Hjelmfelt 1988 ; Wood et al. 2001 ; Romanic and Hangan 2020 ). The models based on impinging-jet analogy are also easier to use because they do not require the user to specify the density

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Shuya Wang
,
Xu Chen
,
Jinhu Wang
,
Qun Li
,
Jing Meng
, and
Yang Xu

process of internal tides impacting the continental slopes. Recently, with the development of the particle image velocimetry (PIV; Dalziel et al. 2007 ) and synthetic Schlieren (SS; Dalziel et al. 2000 , 2007 ), laboratory experiments have become an effective method to explore the scattering of internal tides on continental shelves. The experiments can make up for the aforementioned disadvantages of numerical models and in situ observations. Several experiments on the interaction between internal

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Yu. Troitskaya
,
D. Sergeev
,
A. Kandaurov
,
M. Vdovin
, and
S. Zilitinkevich

describes the wave form drag. The quasi-linear model assumes no separation from the crests of the surface waves of the wind flow averaged over turbulent fluctuations. The applicability of this assumption is justified by the laboratory experiments by Troitskaya et al. (2011) and Buckley and Veron (2016) and the direct numerical simulation by Yang and Shen (2010) and Druzhinin et al. (2012) . Note, that this approach alters the model by Kudryavtsev and Makin (2007) , where the airflow separation

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Giulio Passerotti
,
Luke G. Bennetts
,
Franz von Bock und Polach
,
Alberto Alberello
,
Otto Puolakka
,
Azam Dolatshah
,
Jaak Monbaliu
, and
Alessandro Toffoli

variants that include ice fatigue ( Langhorne et al. 1998 ), probabilistic treatment of wave amplitudes ( Williams et al. 2013a ), irregular wave spectra ( Dumont et al. 2011 ; Horvat and Tziperman 2015 ), three-dimensional effects ( Montiel and Squire 2017 ), breakup memory ( Boutin et al. 2021 ), and viscoelastic ice ( Zhang and Zhao 2021 ). Laboratory-scale physical modeling is generating understanding of wave–ice interactions to complement field observations and theory. Wave basin experiments

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Paul D. Williams
and
Christopher W. Kelsall

with a field of random small-scale isotropic eddies, from which jets can form if conditions allow. The layout of the paper is as follows. First, the physical and numerical aspects of the model are stated and the suite of simulations is described ( section 2 ). Then, the approach to equilibrium is analyzed in a case-study simulation before the equilibrium states are analyzed in the entire suite of simulations ( section 3 ). The paper concludes with a summary and discussion ( section 4 ). 2

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J.-I. Yano
and
V. T. J. Phillips

take the parameters estimated by more recent laboratory data ( Takahashi et al. 1995 ). Especially based on their experimental setup, we assume large graupel with a radius of 2 mm as a major agent that induces a breakup process. We are going to illustrate the basic behavior of the breakup process, including equilibrium states and their stability, in a phase space of an idealized model consisting of cloud ice and small and large graupel particles. The model is described in the next section. Its

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William J. Koshak
,
Richard J. Solakiewicz
, and
Harold S. Peterson

NO x production by laboratory electrical discharges and lightning . J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. , 71 , 1877 – 1889 , doi: 10.1016/j.jastp.2009.07.009 . DeConti , A. , and S. Visacro , 2009 : On the use of lumped sources in a nonlinear lightning return stroke model and extension for evaluating strikes to tall objects . J. Geophys. Res. , 114 , D11115 , doi: 10.1029/2008JD011120 . DeConti , A. , S. Visacro , N. Theethayi , and V. Cooray , 2008 : A comparison of different

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Donya P. Frank-Gilchrist
,
Allison Penko
, and
Joseph Calantoni

shape of the suspended sediment concentration profile above the ripple crest is concave for coarse sand grains but convex for finer sand grains ( Nielsen 1992 ; Absi 2010 ). The general concave shape of the vertical profiles of suspended sediment concentration given by the semiempirical formulations agreed well with the laboratory observations of coarse sand grains. The root-mean-square deviations of the laboratory data from the model predictions by Nielsen (1992) and Sleath (1984) were 4

Open access
Craig D. McConnochie
,
Claudia Cenedese
, and
Jim N. McElwaine

melting, as demonstrated in laboratory experiments by McConnochie and Kerr (2017) and Cenedese and Gatto (2016) . Here we focus on glaciers that have vertical or near-vertical termini as opposed to glaciers with a near-horizontal floating ice shelf or ice tongue. With this focus, it is typically assumed that the ice face near subglacial plumes is vertical although recent observations have suggested that the ice face can be undercut ( Fried et al. 2015 ). Greenland fjords typically have an

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Thomas W. N. Haine

model is based on firm physical principles. Price and O’Neil Baringer (1994) couple entrainment to the dynamics of the overflow plume, which is the key ingredient in the present model. They are guided by the laboratory experiments of Ellison and Turner (1959) and Turner (1986) . These studies suggest that mixing during entrainment events is so efficient that the Froude number cannot exceed one. The assumption of geostrophic flow, and thus a geostrophic Froude number in (8) , implies the two

Open access