Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 8,091 items for :

  • Lake effects x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
Lukas Umek and Alexander Gohm

Bregenz. The town of Bregenz (capital of Vorarlberg, which is the westernmost federal state of Austria) and the mountainous region to the southeast (Bregenzerwald, Fig. 1 ) experienced high amounts of precipitation, while other stations around the lake received far less precipitation in the same period of time. Some events were rather short or the rain gauges were not located at the precipitation maximum (i.e., at the center of the band). Both effects allowed the incident to appear less intense (e

Full access
Laura C. Bowling and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

modules in regional climate models for the prediction of both past and present conditions (e.g., Goyette et al. 2000 ; Hostetler et al. 2000 ). Despite such interest, the hydrologic effects of lakes were until recently largely neglected in large-scale hydrology models or the land surface schemes (LSSs) used within GCMs that predict global climate. This is partially caused by the scale differential: at the scale of current-generation GCM model grid cells, lakes rarely occupy an entire model grid cell

Full access
Samar Minallah and Allison L. Steiner

location, prevailing easterly winds, moisture influx from outside the region (Indian Ocean), and topographic effects ( Anyah et al. 2006 ; Woodhams et al. 2019 ); however, here we focus on the diurnal circulation strength that depends on land–lake temperature gradients. Similar to the observed LSWT April climatology where ERA5 is 4.2 K warmer than ERA-Interim ( Fig. 4d ), the subdaily lake temperatures from 7 to 8 April are also higher in ERA5 ( Fig. 11b ). Due to the simplified lake representation in

Restricted access
Lingjing Zhu, Jiming Jin, and Yimin Liu

at a rate of 46.5 mm decade −1 ( Zhu et al. 2019 ). Therefore, the effects of TP lakes and their changes on local and regional climate are worth characterizing and quantifying. Due to their wide distribution and ability to modulate energy and water transfer, TP lakes are likely to affect TP precipitation at diurnal and seasonal scales. TP precipitation is generated mainly by small (<100 km 2 ) and medium (100–10 000 km 2 ) convective systems ( Hirose and Nakamura 2005 ) and characterized by a

Free access
Colin Plank and Bryan Shuman

scales. “Lake effects” include intensified local precipitation and mediated summer high or winter low temperatures. Much of the investigation into the climatic effect of surface waters (via energy and water budgets) has focused on the impact of very large lakes of the past or present ( Kutzbach 1980 ; Bates et al. 1993 ; Hostetler et al. 1994 ). Downing et al. (2006) , however, show that 43% of the 4 200 000 km 2 of the total surface area of freshwater on the globe is likely stored in lakes of an

Full access
Martina Ricko, James A. Carton, and Charon Birkett

freshwater flux and the accumulation of water in the lake. Thermal expansion effects are neglected as, for example, are the effects of changing salinity on evaporation rates. If we assume water level does not vary spatially within the lake (which could occur owing to wind effects for example), compute the time average of (1) , subtract that time average equation from (1) , neglect water loss ( ε t = 0), and assume A C and A L are constant, then (1) reduces to the following predictive equation

Full access
Z. Long, W. Perrie, J. Gyakum, D. Caya, and R. Laprise

simulations of local temperature, evaporation, and precipitation compared to simulations that neglect the lake effects. For example, the presence of the Great Lakes results in a phase shift in the annual cycles of latent and sensible heat fluxes, increases of the local evaporation and precipitation during the autumn and winter, and alters the meridional air temperature gradient ( Lofgren 1997 ; Bates et al. 1993 ; Hostetler et al. 1993 ; Bonan 1995 ). While most atmosphere–lake studies have focused on

Full access
Mark R. Hjelmfelt

FEBRUARY 1992 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE 373NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCEOrographic Effects in Simulated Lake-Effect Snowstorms over Lake Michigan MARK R. HJELMFELTInstitute of Atmospheric Sciences, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, South Dakota26 December 1990 and 24 May 1991ABSTRACT Numerical simulations of lake-effect snowstorms over Lake Michigan show that orography enhances precipitation

Full access
J. L. Vogel and F. A. Huff

$68 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY VOLCr~E14Fog Effects Resulting from Power Plant Cooling Lakes J. L. VOGEL AND F. A. H~Illinois State Water Sur~ey, Urbana 61g01(Manuscript received 28 August 1974, in revised form 30 January 1975)ABSTRACT A study was made of the potential effects of the waste heat discharge from cooling lakes assodated withlarge power plants in the Midwest upon the distribution of

Full access
Peter G. Veals, W. James Steenburgh, and Leah S. Campbell

others it may be <1, with lowland snowfall exceeding that at upper elevations (e.g., Magono et al. 1966 ; Ishihara et al. 1989 ; Nakai and Endoh 1995 ; Eito et al. 2005 ; Nakai et al. 2008 ; Campbell et al. 2016 ). In this paper, we examine the factors affecting such inland and orographic variations in lake-effect precipitation east of Lake Ontario and over Tug Hill. This represents a unique problem, requiring a synthesis of knowledge of lake-effect precipitation, coastal and inland effects

Full access