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Fang-Yi Cheng, Yu-Ching Hsu, Pay-Liam Lin, and Tang-Huang Lin

. Over the past few decades, land use (LU) and land cover (LC) characteristics in Taiwan have changed substantially. Major cities such as Taipei, Taichung, and Kaohsiung have evolved into megacities, accompanied by the removal of croplands and trees on the outskirts and further urbanization in different parts of the metropolitan area. Such changes have modified local weather conditions, including the land–sea-breeze (LSB) circulation pattern and urban heat island effects ( Tai et al. 2008 ). Taiwan

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Christopher Small

growth could have on the rest of the Earth system in the future. Human transformation of Earth's ecosystems is now recognized to be areally significant (e.g., Cincotta et al., 2000 ; Vitousek et al., 1997 ; Turner et al., 1990 ), but the majority of the human population inhabits a relatively small area. In 1990, over 50% of the human population occupied less than 3% of the ice-free land area ( Small and Cohen, 1999 ; Small and Cohen, 2004 ). The impact of high-density urban land use is different

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Lori T. Sentman, Elena Shevliakova, Ronald J. Stouffer, and Sergey Malyshev

1. Introduction The terrestrial biosphere is an important component of the global carbon cycle and actively exchanges carbon with the atmosphere on varying time scales. Conversion of natural lands for agriculture and wood harvesting has shaped the land surface for centuries. Hurtt et al. ( Hurtt et al. 2006 ) found that 42%–68% of the global land surface was altered by anthropogenic land-use activities between 1700 and 2000. Pongratz et al. ( Pongratz et al. 2009 ) showed that anthropogenic

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E. Robertson

1. Introduction Land-use and land-cover changes (LULCC) affect surface albedo, roughness length, and transpiration, which in turn alter surface fluxes of energy, momentum, and moisture ( Bonan 2008 ). The surface flux response to LULCC can have large impacts on climate ( Bonan 1997 ; de Noblet-Ducoudré et al. 2012 ), although there is substantial model disagreement ( Lejeune et al. 2017 ) that is often difficult to constrain using observations ( Winckler et al. 2019 ). Recently, new

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Rezaul Mahmood, Kenneth G. Hubbard, Ronnie D. Leeper, and Stuart A. Foster

1. Introduction Local and regional-scale land use change can profoundly affect the hydroclimatic cycle at these scales. A significant number of modeled (e.g., Bonan 1997 ; Chase et al. 1999 ; Eastman et al. 2001 ) and several observed data-based studies have (e.g., Bonan 2001 ; Kalnay and Cai 2004 McPherson et al. 2004 ) demonstrated potential and actual impacts of land surface modification on near-surface hydroclimatology and hydrometeorology. Conversion of nonirrigated areas to

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In-Young Yeo, Steven I. Gordon, and Jean-Michel Guldmann

to investigate the impacts of land uses/covers on watershed hydrology ( Jolánkai et al., 1999 ; Jordan et al., 1997 ; Bingner and Theurer, 2001 ; Moglen and Beighley, 2002 ; Novotny and Chesters, 1982 ; Singh, 1995 ). Using this knowledge, simulation and statistical models have been developed to 1) explain the land–water interaction, 2) quantify pollution loads, and 3) link pollutants to their sources. Quantitative modeling provides useful tools to analyze land–water interrelationships and

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Ademola K. Braimoh and Paul L. G. Vlek

1. Introduction Land use is determined by biophysical and social variables interacting in space and time ( Turner et al., 1995 ). Descriptive models of land-use and land-cover change (LUCC) are useful when trying to determine the relationship between LUCC and the driving forces. They also improve our understanding of the functioning of land-use systems for planning and policy formulation. To be of value in planning, models that quantify such relationships at different spatial scales are

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Winston T. L. Chow and Bohumil M. Svoma

1. Introduction Urbanization alters surface land-use/land cover (LULC) characteristics that, in turn, affect several important factors controlling near-surface and surface climates. An extensively researched example of this is the urban heat island (UHI)—the phenomenon of warmer urban environments relative to their local surroundings ( Landsberg 1981 ). The UHI mainly arises from surface energy balance alterations due to LULC change ( Oke 1982 ), and its intensity is a function of several

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Liang Chen and Paul A. Dirmeyer

1. Introduction During the period 1700–2000, between 42% and 68% of the global land surface was altered through human activities such as cropland and pasture expansion and wood harvest ( Hurtt et al. 2006 ). These land-use/land-cover changes can affect the energy and water exchange between the land surface and atmosphere, thereby impacting the climate at regional and global scales ( Feddema et al. 2005 ; Lawrence and Chase 2010 ). Previous studies have demonstrated the impacts of historical

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Huilin Huang, Yongkang Xue, Nagaraju Chilukoti, Ye Liu, Gang Chen, and Ismaila Diallo

1. Introduction Land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) consists of a wide range of land surface conversions including the conversion from forests to crops and pasturelands, reforestation of formerly agricultural areas, afforestation, and all kinds of urbanization ( Mahmood et al. 2014 ). From the years 1700 to 2000, 42%–68% of the global land surface has been transformed from natural vegetation into agriculture, rangeland, and woodland ( Hurtt et al. 2006 ). By the end of the twentieth century

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