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Emmanuel M. Attua and Joshua B. Fisher

better understand and address the complex land-use system of the area and develop improved land-use management strategies that could better balance urban expansion and ecological conservation. This will help forestall ecological and socioeconomic challenges commonly associated with unplanned urban land development, before they could attain overwhelming proportions ( López et al. 2001 ). Urban land-cover change and modeling techniques The study of land-cover change is an important topic

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Bryan Pijanowski, Nathan Moore, Dasaraden Mauree, and Dev Niyogi

; Boko et al. 2007 ). Efforts at prioritizing investments for adaptation and mitigation in places such as Africa have largely neglected the nonradiative forcings on climate associated with land-use/land-cover (LULC) change ( Conway 2004 ; Lobell et al. 2008 ; Moore et al. 2010 ; Moore et al. 2011 ). Similarly, with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment, there is growing understanding that climate projections need to include a spectrum of LULC ( Pielke et al. 2007

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Wondmagegn Yigzaw, Faisal Hossain, and Alfred Kalyanapu

immediate and can be treated as “tactical.” There is a more gradual response, akin to climatic change, that can also be a response of water cycle to land cover changes. Such a change can be called “strategic” and is described through the following example. Presence of a dam (here used interchangeably with artificial reservoirs) can facilitate urbanization both on the upstream and downstream side. Construction of dams is still one of the socioeconomic solutions that are adapted by most developing

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Rezaul Mahmood, Roger A. Pielke Sr., and Clive A. McAlpine

Observational and modeling studies clearly demonstrate that land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) (e.g., Fig. 1 ) plays an important biogeophysical and biogeochemical role in the climate system from the landscape to regional and even continental scales ( Foley et al. 2005 ; Pielke et al. 2011 ; Brovkin et al. 2013 ; Luyssaert et al. 2014 ; Mahmood et al. 2014 ). The biogeochemical effect on the carbon budget is well recognized in both the scientific and policy-making communities. The

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August H. Auer Jr.

. The land use chssification provides as much compatibility as possible with other classificationsystems, yet offers the inclusion of percentage vegetative cover as an innovative characteris~/c of theland use description. The observed meteorological (thermodynamic, ldnematic and r~diative) anomaliesin the vicinity of the metropolitan are~ are shown to be afiSliated with "meteorologically significant"land cover characteristics. It is suggested that the specific details of population, areal extent

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Thomas R. Loveland and Rezaul Mahmood

Sustained assessment of the climatic impacts of land use and land cover change is essential. Land use and land cover change (LULCC) plays an important role in the climate system. Many studies have documented the impacts of LULCC on local, regional, and global climate. The National Climate Assessment Report ( Melillo et al. 2014 ) identifies LULCC as a “cross cutting” issue of future climate change studies. This report, and the previous U.S. Climate Change Science Program strategic plan (2003

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Weiyue Zhang, Zhongfeng Xu, and Weidong Guo

1. Introduction Human activities have altered 42%–68% of the global land surface by transforming natural vegetation into crops, pastures, and woods for harvesting from the years 1700 to 2000 ( Hurtt et al. 2006 ). The biogeophysical climate impacts of human-induced land-cover change have been investigated using various general circulation models (GCM), regional climate models, and observations (e.g., Pielke et al. 2002 ; Fu 2003 ; Feddema et al. 2005 ; Bonan 2008 ). The Fifth Assessment

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Huilin Huang, Yongkang Xue, Nagaraju Chilukoti, Ye Liu, Gang Chen, and Ismaila Diallo

1. Introduction Land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) consists of a wide range of land surface conversions including the conversion from forests to crops and pasturelands, reforestation of formerly agricultural areas, afforestation, and all kinds of urbanization ( Mahmood et al. 2014 ). From the years 1700 to 2000, 42%–68% of the global land surface has been transformed from natural vegetation into agriculture, rangeland, and woodland ( Hurtt et al. 2006 ). By the end of the twentieth century

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Abel T. Woldemichael, Faisal Hossain, and Roger Pielke Sr.

changes in the land use/land cover (LULC) types. For instance, if the dam is used for irrigation or for expansion of existing irrigation systems, the majority of the nearby land is generally converted to agricultural use, which will be supplied by water from the reservoir. Moreover, the land will be frequently inundated throughout the year, when the crop demand for water is met by the supply from the dams/reservoirs. Irrigation also enhances the atmospheric water vapor content through evaporation and

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Menglin S. Jin

rural temperature for different types of land cover. Simply put, the magnitude of UHI 2m depends on the locations of the city and rural observations, complicating the assessment of the spatiotemporal attributes of UHI and making it impossible to compare the UHI of one city to another. The UHI has also been detected using relatively high-resolution satellite observations of the land surface skin temperature T skin ( Voogt and Oke 1997 ; Jin et al. 2005 , 2011 ), which is generally reported as

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