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Ademola K. Braimoh and Paul L. G. Vlek

matter (SOM) destroys soil structure, leading to low crop yields. A better understanding of the processes, rates, causes, and consequences of land-use and land-cover change is vital for many areas of global change research. Land-use and land-cover change are sources and sinks for most of the material and energy flow that are of importance to the biosphere and geosphere. Land uses account for about 40% of net primary productivity of the Earth ( Vitousek et al. 1997 ), whereas land-cover change has a

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Scott R. Loarie, David B. Lobell, Gregory P. Asner, and Christopher B. Field

1. Introduction Land surface albedo is a major driver of climate change ( Bonan 2008 ; Wielicki et al. 2005 ), but climate models rarely incorporate projected albedo changes from future land use ( Oleson et al. 2003 ; Tian et al. 2004 ). This is largely because of a continued poor understanding of the historic drivers of albedo change. Certain land-cover transitions, such as boreal and tropical deforestation, drive relatively well understood albedo changes that have been evaluated

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Julia Pongratz, Lahouari Bounoua, Ruth S. DeFries, Douglas C. Morton, Liana O. Anderson, Wolfram Mauser, and Carlos A. Klink

structure alters the turbulent transfer of energy through roughness elements. Its optical properties alter the net solar radiation absorbed by the canopy and its physiological activity controls the partitioning of the incoming energy into turbulent fluxes. The impact of land cover change on climate has been explored in previous studies (e.g., Dickinson and Kennedy 1992 ; Zhang et al. 1996 ; Collatz et al. 2000 ; Costa and Foley 2000 ; Bounoua et al. 2002 ; Zhao and Pitman 2002 ; Nobre et al. 2004

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Gemma T. Narisma and Andrew J. Pitman

1. Introduction Historically, the climate system has been considered to be primarily an atmosphere–ocean problem by global climate and regional climate modelers. In the early 1990s, global climate models included the atmosphere, oceans, sea ice, and a physical representation of the Earth's surface ( Albritton et al., 2001 ), and experiments using these global models that explored the impact of regional-scale land-cover change simply modified land surface parameter values to reflect a change in

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Emmanuel M. Attua and Joshua B. Fisher

1. Introduction Like all human–Earth interactions, urban land-cover changes represent a response to socioeconomic, political, demographic, and environmental conditions, largely characterized by a concentration of human populations ( Masek et al. 2000 ; He et al. 2008 ). Although total urban area covers a very small fraction of the Earth’s land surface, urban expansion is believed to have significantly impacted the natural landscape, producing enormous changes in the environment and

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G. T. Narisma and A. J. Pitman

1. Introduction The significance of the impacts of historical land-cover change (LCC) on the present-day climate of Australia has been investigated by Narisma and Pitman ( Narisma and Pitman 2003 ) and Pitman et al. ( Pitman et al. 2004 ). Their results showed that LCC may account for a substantial part of the regional long-term weather changes over Australia in the last two centuries, including changes in temperature and rainfall. The significance of these results has established the important

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Alfred J. Kalyanapu, A. K. M. Azad Hossain, Jinwoo Kim, Wondmagegn Yigzaw, Faisal Hossain, and C. K. Shum

et al. 2011 ; Hossain et al. 2012 ) points to the effects of large dams on changing the extreme precipitation patterns such as probable maximum precipitation (PMP). The probable maximum flood (PMF), which is an important factor for hydraulic design of dams, is dependent on PMP and the hydrology of the watershed. A key driver for modification of PMP and PMF during the postdam phase is the land-use/land-cover (LULC) change patterns that are both sensitive to mesoscale weather and surface

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Christine Wiedinmyer, Xuexi Tie, Alex Guenther, Ron Neilson, and Claire Granier

much less common in crops and grasses (e.g., Guenther et al. 1995 ). It is therefore expected that future biogenic isoprene emissions will change as climate and land cover changes. For example, increases in temperatures will lead to increased isoprene emissions. Also, as forested areas are converted to croplands, savannahs, and grasslands, isoprene emissions in those regions are expected to decrease. Potential changes and impacts of biogenic isoprene emissions must be considered as we evaluate

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Kirsten L. Findell, Elena Shevliakova, P. C. D. Milly, and Ronald J. Stouffer

issues that Pielke (2002) raises is the impact of anthropogenic land cover change on climate. Pielke et al. (1998) discuss the many short- and long-term processes that connect the terrestrial ecosystem and overlying atmosphere; they assert that, “In studies of past and possible future climate change, terrestrial ecosystem dynamics are as important as changes in atmospheric dynamics and composition, ocean circulation, ice sheet extent, and orbital perturbations” (460–4611). We use the Geophysical

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Rezaul Mahmood, Roger A. Pielke Sr., and Clive A. McAlpine

Observational and modeling studies clearly demonstrate that land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) (e.g., Fig. 1 ) plays an important biogeophysical and biogeochemical role in the climate system from the landscape to regional and even continental scales ( Foley et al. 2005 ; Pielke et al. 2011 ; Brovkin et al. 2013 ; Luyssaert et al. 2014 ; Mahmood et al. 2014 ). The biogeochemical effect on the carbon budget is well recognized in both the scientific and policy-making communities. The

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