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Alfred J. Kalyanapu, A. K. M. Azad Hossain, Jinwoo Kim, Wondmagegn Yigzaw, Faisal Hossain, and C. K. Shum

et al. 2011 ; Hossain et al. 2012 ) points to the effects of large dams on changing the extreme precipitation patterns such as probable maximum precipitation (PMP). The probable maximum flood (PMF), which is an important factor for hydraulic design of dams, is dependent on PMP and the hydrology of the watershed. A key driver for modification of PMP and PMF during the postdam phase is the land-use/land-cover (LULC) change patterns that are both sensitive to mesoscale weather and surface

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Emmanuel M. Attua and Joshua B. Fisher

better understand and address the complex land-use system of the area and develop improved land-use management strategies that could better balance urban expansion and ecological conservation. This will help forestall ecological and socioeconomic challenges commonly associated with unplanned urban land development, before they could attain overwhelming proportions ( López et al. 2001 ). Urban land-cover change and modeling techniques The study of land-cover change is an important topic

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Bryan Pijanowski, Nathan Moore, Dasaraden Mauree, and Dev Niyogi

; Boko et al. 2007 ). Efforts at prioritizing investments for adaptation and mitigation in places such as Africa have largely neglected the nonradiative forcings on climate associated with land-use/land-cover (LULC) change ( Conway 2004 ; Lobell et al. 2008 ; Moore et al. 2010 ; Moore et al. 2011 ). Similarly, with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment, there is growing understanding that climate projections need to include a spectrum of LULC ( Pielke et al. 2007

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Rezaul Mahmood, Roger A. Pielke Sr., and Clive A. McAlpine

Observational and modeling studies clearly demonstrate that land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) (e.g., Fig. 1 ) plays an important biogeophysical and biogeochemical role in the climate system from the landscape to regional and even continental scales ( Foley et al. 2005 ; Pielke et al. 2011 ; Brovkin et al. 2013 ; Luyssaert et al. 2014 ; Mahmood et al. 2014 ). The biogeochemical effect on the carbon budget is well recognized in both the scientific and policy-making communities. The

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Liang Chen and Paul A. Dirmeyer

1. Introduction During the period 1700–2000, between 42% and 68% of the global land surface was altered through human activities such as cropland and pasture expansion and wood harvest ( Hurtt et al. 2006 ). These land-use/land-cover changes can affect the energy and water exchange between the land surface and atmosphere, thereby impacting the climate at regional and global scales ( Feddema et al. 2005 ; Lawrence and Chase 2010 ). Previous studies have demonstrated the impacts of historical

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Thomas R. Loveland and Rezaul Mahmood

Sustained assessment of the climatic impacts of land use and land cover change is essential. Land use and land cover change (LULCC) plays an important role in the climate system. Many studies have documented the impacts of LULCC on local, regional, and global climate. The National Climate Assessment Report ( Melillo et al. 2014 ) identifies LULCC as a “cross cutting” issue of future climate change studies. This report, and the previous U.S. Climate Change Science Program strategic plan (2003

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Paul Xavier Flanagan, Rezaul Mahmood, Terry Sohl, Mark Svoboda, Brian Wardlow, Michael Hayes, and Eric Rappin

1. Introduction Land-use land-cover (LULC) plays an important role in regional and global climate systems ( Bonan et al. 2004 ; Torbick et al. 2006 ; Wang et al. 2006 ; Pyke and Andelman 2007 ; Mahmood et al. 2014 , 2016 ; Pielke et al. 2016 ; Sleeter et al. 2018 ). As stated in the Fourth National Climate Assessment (NCA4), “changes in land-cover continue to impact local- to global-scale weather and climate by altering the flow of energy, water, and greenhouse gases between the land and

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Weiyue Zhang, Zhongfeng Xu, and Weidong Guo

1. Introduction Human activities have altered 42%–68% of the global land surface by transforming natural vegetation into crops, pastures, and woods for harvesting from the years 1700 to 2000 ( Hurtt et al. 2006 ). The biogeophysical climate impacts of human-induced land-cover change have been investigated using various general circulation models (GCM), regional climate models, and observations (e.g., Pielke et al. 2002 ; Fu 2003 ; Feddema et al. 2005 ; Bonan 2008 ). The Fifth Assessment

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Daniel E. Comarazamy, Jorge E. González, Jeffrey C. Luvall, Douglas L. Rickman, and Robert D. Bornstein

1. Introduction Anthropogenic land-cover and land-use (LCLU) changes have profound climate and environmental impacts. One of the most extreme cases of LCLU change is urbanization, with its clearest indicator as the urban–rural thermal phenomenon known as the urban heat island (UHI). The UHI is defined as a dome of high temperatures observed over urban centers, as compared to the relatively cooler rural surroundings ( Landsberg 1981 ; Oke 1987 ). One factor that leads to UHI formation is the

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Huilin Huang, Yongkang Xue, Nagaraju Chilukoti, Ye Liu, Gang Chen, and Ismaila Diallo

1. Introduction Land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) consists of a wide range of land surface conversions including the conversion from forests to crops and pasturelands, reforestation of formerly agricultural areas, afforestation, and all kinds of urbanization ( Mahmood et al. 2014 ). From the years 1700 to 2000, 42%–68% of the global land surface has been transformed from natural vegetation into agriculture, rangeland, and woodland ( Hurtt et al. 2006 ). By the end of the twentieth century

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