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Kazuyuki Miyazaki, Shingo Watanabe, Yoshio Kawatani, Kaoru Sato, Yoshihiro Tomikawa, and Masaaki Takahashi

and around the tropopause in the extratropics (e.g., Stone et al. 1999 ). The exchange of air caused by these large-scale motions across the tropopause plays an essential role in the abundance of chemical constituents in both the troposphere and stratosphere ( Holton et al. 1995 ): for example, the stratosphere–troposphere exchange (STE) on the isentropic surface is mainly due to mixing by Rossby wave breaking and stirring effects by differential advection near the jet stream (e.g., Chen et al

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L. N. Azadani and A. E. Staples

-dimensional, nondivergent flow on the surface of a sphere. The BVE contains the nonlinear interactions of atmospheric motions and has been used extensively in the study of large-scale atmospheric dynamics. Charney et al. (1950) performed the first successful numerical weather prediction based on the BVE. Atmospheric flows have a wide range of time and length scales, which can vary from seconds to decades and from micrometers to several thousand kilometers. Because of limited computational resources, resolving all of

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Jan A. Kamieniecki, Maarten H. P. Ambaum, Robert S. Plant, and Steven J. Woolnough

). This circulation can be superimposed on the normal convective motions representing an idealized large-scale circulation that provides a linkage between two regions. Most studies have used a reference-column approach, whereby the large-scale circulation is determined by temperature differences between the area modeled and an assumed environmental profile; more recently, Daleu et al. (2012 , 2015a ) extended this approach to two coupled regions, which enables a more explicit representation of the

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Karl E. Taylor

VOL. 37, NO. 1JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCESJANUARY 1980The Roles of Mean Meridional Motions and Large-Scale Eddies in Zonally Averaged Circulations KARL E. TAYLOR'Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of ColoradolNOAA, Boulder 80309(Manuscript received 19,June 1979, in final form 17 August 1979) ABSTRACTA hierarchy of zonally averaged atmospheric models is used to study the role of mean meridionalmotions and large-scale

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Jun-Ichi Yano and Marine Bonazzola

Scientists and Engineers . McGraw-Hill, 593 pp . Burger , A. , 1958 : Scale considerations of planetary motions of the atmosphere. Tellus , 10 , 195 – 205 . Charney , J. G. , 1948 : On the scale of atmospheric motions. Geofys. Publ. , 17 , 1 – 17 . Charney , J. G. , 1963 : A note on large-scale motions in the tropics. J. Atmos. Sci. , 20 , 607 – 609 . Frank , W. M. , and J. L. McBride , 1989 : The vertical distribution of heating in AMEX and GATE cloud clusters. J. Atmos

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H. Mukougawa

296g JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOL. 45, NO. 20A Dynamical Model of "Quasi-stationary" States in Large-Scale Atmospheric Motions HITOSHI MUKOUGAWA*Geophysical Institute, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan(Manuscript received 4 December 1987, in final form 4 April 1988) A theoretical study is made to establish the concept'of "quas/-stationary ( QS )" states in irregular, large

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Kevin C. Viner and Craig C. Epifanio

) and the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5) (among many others). The KW approach was originally developed in the context of mesoscale cloud modeling—specifically, for horizontal grid spacings on the order of 1 km or so and with typical time steps on the order of 10 s or less. However, in recent years the method has increasingly been used for the simulation of large-scale flows as well. Global and planetary atmosphere

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Carl Wunsch and Raffaele Ferrari

showed beyond doubt the existence of an intense “mesoscale” eddy field involving baroclinic motions related to the baroclinic radii of about 35 km and smaller, as well as barotropic motions on a much larger scale. In oceanography, the expression mesoscale describes the spatial scale that is intermediate between the large-scale ocean circulation and the internal wave field and is thus very different from its meteorological usage (which is closer to the ocean “submesoscale”). A better descriptor is

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David W. J. Thompson and Jonathan D. Woodworth

1. Introduction Large-scale patterns of extratropical climate variability are typically identified through 1) correlation analyses between geographically separated points in the zonally varying circulation (i.e., so-called teleconnectivity) and/or 2) empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. In both cases, the statistical analyses generally focus on the geopotential height, temperature, and/or zonal-wind fields. The purpose of this study is to investigate large-scale patterns of climate

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Zhiming Kuang

1. Introduction Cloud-system-resolving model (CSRM) simulations subject to horizontally or zonally homogeneous boundary and forcing conditions can spontaneously develop large-scale circulations in the homogeneous direction. One example is the convectively coupled waves, which can develop without feedbacks from radiation or surface fluxes (e.g., Grabowski and Moncrieff 2001 ; Tulich et al. 2007 ; Kuang 2008a ; Nasuno et al. 2008 ; Blanco et al. 2016 ), and appear comparable in structure and

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