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Myung-Sook Park and Russell L. Elsberry

top-down hypothesis (e.g., Bister and Emanuel 1997 ) is on the mesoscale convective vortex (MCV) in the midtroposphere that is created in the stratiform cloud region because of cooling below the freezing level due to melting and evaporation of precipitation and heating aloft due to condensational heating and latent heat released as the water droplets freeze. This midtroposphere MCV is either extended down ( Bister and Emanuel 1997 ; Ritchie and Holland 1997 ) or interacts with the monsoon

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Fiaz Ahmed, Courtney Schumacher, Zhe Feng, and Samson Hagos

category possessing a canonical heating profile ( Houze 1997 ). Stratiform rain processes warm the troposphere at upper levels and cool at lower levels. Deep convective rain processes warm the entire troposphere with a heating peak at midlevels, while shallower convection has a heating peak in the lower troposphere ( Schumacher et al. 2004 ). The bulk of the variance in the vertical structure of tropical latent heating can be explained by a composite of bottom- and middle-heavy convective-like profiles

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Kristine F. Haualand and Thomas Spengler

1. Introduction Latent heating has been shown to increase the growth rate of midlatitude cyclones while their horizontal scale is reduced (e.g., Manabe 1956 ; Craig and Cho 1988 ; Snyder and Lindzen 1991 ; Moore and Montgomery 2004 ). Although latent heating is probably the most important diabatic effect on midlatitude cyclone development, Forbes and Clark (2003) and Dearden et al. (2016) reported significant latent cooling rates from sublimation, melting, and evaporation of

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Wei-Kuo Tao, Stephen Lang, Xiping Zeng, Shoichi Shige, and Yukari Takayabu

lower levels (similar to classic stratiform heating profiles but weaker), whereas profiles next to convective areas have weak cooling aloft and weak heating at low levels. The eddy term in the near-rain areas is weaker but on the same order as that in the rainy areas. Radiation, which is averaged over the entire subdomain area as it was for the rainy LUTs, is of the same order of magnitude as the radiation in the rainy areas. Finally, mean latent, eddy, and radiative heating/cooling profiles are

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Adam B. Sokol and Dennis L. Hartmann

cooling rate Q R . The formation of ice during convection releases latent heat, which is transported to the upper troposphere (UT) by deep convective plumes. This latent heating, along with the eddy heat flux convergence associated with the convection, constitutes the total convective heating. In RCE, convective heating is balanced by Q R , which we can compute accurately for known temperature and moisture profiles. Models of varying complexity predict that Q R in the UT will increase with

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William K. M. Lau and Weichen Tao

tropics respectively for each reanalysis dataset, and for the MRE ( Fig. 4a ). Within the tropics, strong increases in precipitation and RH, together with reduced total OLR, can be identified in the ascent regions, and the opposites are found in the descent regions. In the ascent regions, the troposphere is warmed by the residual imbalance between enhanced latent heating (from increased precipitation) and adiabatic cooling due to ascent. The warmer air will increase OLR cooling to space. However

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Ethan L. Nelson, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, Stephen M. Saleeby, Wesley Berg, Stephen R. Herbener, and Susan C. van den Heever

magnitude of evaporative cooling ( McCumber et al. 1991 ; Mapes and Houze 1993 ; Tao et al. 1993 ). It has also been theorized that latent heating by condensation within the lower levels of the atmosphere from shallow convection plays an important role during the incipient stages of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) ( Jiang et al. 2011 ). Similarly, Sheffield et al. (2015) demonstrated that variations in the latent heat released by warm-phase processes impacted the transitions from shallow cumulus

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Masahiro Sawada and Toshiki Iwasaki

accurately express the vertical profile of latent heat release that an explicit representation of cloud microphysics can, because of its complexity. To express the effects of cloud microphysics explicitly, a high-resolution simulation is required. To save computing resources and/or obtain physical understanding, TC simulations have been made with a two-dimensional axisymmetric model in previous studies. In particular, a great interest has been placed on the effects of evaporative cooling as well as those

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Manuel D. Zuluaga, Carlos D. Hoyos, and Peter J. Webster

. During period 1, corresponding to a dry phase as is evident in both satellite and in situ rainfall measurements, the observed cooling is not captured by the CSH product because this is purely radiational, and by algorithm design the CSH does not estimate radiational heating/cooling in nonrain areas. In this case a radiation product is needed to fill this gap in the retrieval of total heating. During period 4, the budget captures latent heating by stratiform rainfall aloft that is not captured by the

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Myung-Sook Park, Andrew B. Penny, Russell L. Elsberry, Brian J. Billings, and James D. Doyle

stratiform regions of the MCS in increasing the cyclonic vorticity near the surface or in midlevels, and thereby which pathway (axisymmetrization, vortex merging, or other interactions) the intensification to a tropical cyclone vortex occurs. All of these studies emphasized the importance of the simulated latent heating rate as a crucial physical process leading to a tropical cyclone circulation. Despite these significant impacts, numerically simulated latent heating and cooling rates have rarely been

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