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Howard B. Bluestein
,
Jana B. Houser
,
Michael M. French
,
Jeffrey C. Snyder
,
George D. Emmitt
,
Ivan PopStefanija
,
Chad Baldi
, and
Robert T. Bluth

ground-based wind observations in the boundary layer in and near supercells (mostly in the inflow region and just behind the rear-flank gust front), some tornadic, from a very high-spatial resolution, mobile, pulsed Doppler lidar and collocated, mobile, phased-array, X-band Doppler radar data ( Bluestein et al. 2010 ); and 2) to make a case for the use of the lidar for probing the boundary layer of tornadoes. The data were collected during the second year of the Second Verification of the Origins of

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Carmen Cordoba-Jabonero
,
Manuel Gil
,
Margarita Yela
,
Marion Maturilli
, and
Roland Neuber

small, easily handled aerosol lidar from the new generation of micropulse lidars [MPL version 4 (MPL-4), Sigma Space Corporation] at Belgrano Station, Antarctica (78°S, 34°W). Belgrano remains well inside the vortex during wintertime ( Parrondo et al. 2007 ) providing an excellent location for PSC observations. This new equipment will complete the Antarctic program, which INTA is performing continuously from 1994 for stratospheric ozone monitoring and research. Older versions than MPL-4 are already

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Martin Weissmann
,
Kathrin Folger
, and
Heiner Lange

uncertainty and contributes up to 70% of the total error. In addition, those errors can be horizontally correlated over several hundred kilometers ( Bormann et al. 2003 ). As a consequence, AMVs are usually thinned rigorously for the assimilation in NWP models. Spaceborne lidars such as the one on the Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations ( CALIPSO ) satellite can accurately determine the height of cloud tops. Therefore, the combination of AMVs with cloud-top information

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Mircea Grecu
and
John E. Yorks

on deep convection, high clouds, and aerosols ( Braun et al. 2022 ; Yorks et al. 2022 ). The AOS inclined observations will include backscatter from an elastic backscatter lidar ( Weitkamp 2006 ), Ku-band radar reflectivity, and submillimeter wave radiometer brightness temperature measurements. While not necessarily optimal for cloud ice estimation, these measurements are complementary and enable the synergistic characterization of ice clouds. That is, despite the fact that lidar observations

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Julia W. Fiedler
,
Lauren Kim
,
Robert L. Grenzeback
,
Adam P. Young
, and
Mark A. Merrifield

Guza 1984 ; Holland et al. 1995 ) and buried pressure sensors, which can also measure nearshore waves (e.g., Raubenheimer et al. 1998 ). These are costly to maintain and not easily moved once deployed. Remote observations of nearshore processes for model validation have historically been based on video techniques (e.g., Holman et al. 2013 ), with the more recent addition of lidar and radar ( Brodie et al. 2015 ; Blenkinsopp et al. 2010 ; Almeida et al. 2013 ; Turner et al. 2016b ; Vousdoukas

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Natalie Midzak
,
John E. Yorks
,
Jianglong Zhang
,
Bastiaan van Diedenhoven
,
Sarah Woods
, and
Matthew McGill

derived from airborne polarimeter observations. However, only broad plate-like or column-like categories can be derived using polarimeter observations alone. Noel et al. (2004) found lidar depolarization ratio to be sensitive to modeled aspect ratio which allowed for a coarse classification of habit types. Still only broad ice crystal categories including plates or spheroids, irregulars and columns were derived from the study. Also, distinguishing small from large ice crystals is a challenging task

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Christian Herold
,
Dietrich Althausen
,
Detlef Müller
,
Matthias Tesche
,
Patric Seifert
,
Ronny Engelmann
,
Cyrille Flamant
,
Rohini Bhawar
, and
Paolo Di Girolamo

disappears almost completely due to the advection and mixing of humid air masses into the free troposphere. The lidar observed a different pattern of development for the vertical water vapor distribution. The dry layer persisted until the arrival of the MCS. This observation explains the deviations between the observations and the model at this height range. The advection of moister air masses in the free troposphere forecasted by COSMO-DE is also less dominant in the lidar observations. The dry layer

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Kathrin Folger
and
Martin Weissmann

assimilation in NWP models and only a small fraction of the available observations is used. Preceding studies ( Velden and Bedka 2009 ; Weissmann et al. 2013 ) demonstrated that AMVs actually represent the wind in a vertically extended layer, although they are traditionally assimilated at discrete levels. In addition, Weissmann et al. (2013) showed that the height of AMVs can be corrected using airborne lidar cloud-top observations. The study presented here further investigates these two approaches that

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Satoru Yoshida
,
Tetsu Sakai
,
Tomohiro Nagai
,
Yasutaka Ikuta
,
Yoshinori Shoji
,
Hiromu Seko
, and
Koichi Shiraishi

with MCSs ( Kato et al. 2003 ; Schumacher 2015 ; Peters et al. 2017 ; Lee et al. 2018 ). Several water vapor observation techniques have been developed, including the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), ground-based and spaceborne microwave radiometer (MWR), radiosounding observations, and water vapor lidar. GNSS estimates column-integrated water vapor amount using the time delay of signals from GPS satellites. Although the column-integrated water vapor data provided by the GNSS are

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Minttu Tuononen
,
Ewan J. O’Connor
,
Victoria A. Sinclair
, and
Ville Vakkari

observations at Cabauw in the Netherlands. Sodar data have also been used to determine the occurrence and characteristics of LLJs—for example, in Florida ( Karipot et al. 2009 ) and in Moscow ( Kallistratova and Kouznetsov 2012 ). High-resolution Doppler lidar has proven to be an ideal instrument to measure vertical wind profiles ( Banta et al. 2002 , 2013 ), and Doppler lidar systems have even been deployed on ships ( Tucker et al. 2010 ; Pichugina et al. 2012 ), enabling the investigation of LLJs in

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