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T. Chronis, Lawrence D. Carey, Christopher J. Schultz, Elise V. Schultz, Kristin M. Calhoun, and Steven J. Goodman

1. Introduction The advent of ground-based lightning detection networks in recent decades has made real-time retrieval of total lightning activity [cloud to ground (CG) and intracloud (IC)] available in both high spatial and temporal resolutions. Although there are uncertainties in the details ( Takahashi 1978 ; Saunders 1993 ), it is known that rebounding collisions between graupel and ice crystals in the presence of supercooled water is the primary process for thunderstorm electrification

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Wenjuan Zhang, Yijun Zhang, Dong Zheng, and Xiuji Zhou

1. Introduction Our knowledge about lightning activities in tropical cyclones (TCs) has gone through several stages. In the early times, there was a lack of research on storm electrification in tropical cyclones. Dun (1951) suggested that thunderstorms occurred frequently on the outer region but not the center of hurricanes. Jorgensen et al. (1985) indicated the strongest hurricane updraft cores were weak in comparison with that in midlatitude thunderstorms. Willoughby et al. (1985) found

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Christina A. Stall, Kenneth L. Cummins, E. Philip Krider, and John A. Cramer

1. Introduction Most negative lightning flashes to the ground produce multiple strokes [see Schonland (1956 , 1964) and Uman (1969 , chapter 2) for reviews of the luminous development of cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flashes]; typically, about half of these flashes strike the ground in more than one place. For convenience, we will refer to CG flashes that produce multiple ground terminations as multiple ground contacts (MGCs). Valine and Krider (2002) have measured the luminous

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Antti Mäkelä, Pekka Rossi, and David M. Schultz

1. Introduction The intensity of a thunderstorm can be expressed in several ways. For example, in the United States, a severe thunderstorm is defined as a storm producing lightning/thunder and large hail [1 in. (2.5 cm) and larger (changed from ¾ in. as of January 2010; G. Carbin 2010, personal communication)], strong wind gusts [50 kt (26 m s −1 ) and greater], and/or a tornado (e.g., Galway 1989 ). Thunderstorm intensity might also be expressed by the incurred damages, although the damage

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Ruiyang Ma, Dong Zheng, Yijun Zhang, Wen Yao, Wenjuan Zhang, and Deqing Cuomu

convective clouds over the TP because of the harsh and sparsely populated natural environment and the small scale and short life of convective clouds ( Jiang et al. 1996 ; Li et al. 2008 ; Qie et al. 2014 ; Fu et al. 2020 ). In this case, the observation and analysis of lightning activity may play a unique role in indicating the convection activity over the TP. The charging process mainly occurs between collision-rebound ice-phase particles ( Takahashi 1978 ). Therefore, the lightning activity

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Fan Wu, Xiaopeng Cui, Da-Lin Zhang, Dongxia Liu, and Dong Zheng

1. Introduction Lightning is a natural electric discharge phenomenon consisting of cloud-to-ground (CG) and intracloud (IC) flashes, and accounts for many human casualties and tremendous property damage worldwide every year ( Zhang et al. 2011 ). Lightning activity is closely associated with severe convective events that can exert significant impacts on human society and environments. Thus, much attention has been paid to the relationship between lightning activity and severe convective events

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Bogdan Antonescu and Sorin Burcea

1. Introduction Cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning is one of the leading causes of weather-related fatalities in the United States ( Holle et al. 1999 ); only flash floods rank higher than lightning in terms of deaths ( Curran et al. 2000 ). Information concerning the spatial and temporal distribution of CG lightning is critical, because major property damage, power system breakdowns, and forest fires are closely related to lightning flashes ( Wierzchowski et al. 2002 ). Based on a dataset for the

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Weixin Xu, Robert F. Adler, and Nai-Yu Wang

in which cloud tops are relatively warm but rainfall is heavy. To address these issues, additional storm information, especially precipitation structure and microphysics-related information, should be considered. Calibration of IR-based techniques by microwave observations may improve the retrievals ( Sorooshian et al. 2000 ; Todd et al. 2001 ; Kuligowski 2002 ; Kidd et al. 2003 ) but is limited by large gaps between overpasses and missing features in either the IR or microwave data. Lightning

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Fernando de Pablo and Luis Rivas Soriano

1. Introduction The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is considered to be the main pattern of the variability of atmospheric circulation in the North Atlantic area. The effects of the NAO on precipitation and temperature have been analyzed in several publications (e.g., Hurrell 1995 ; Ulbrich et al. 1999 ), but studies on the relationship between the NAO and lightning are limited, perhaps because during the winter, when the NAO is stronger, lightning is at a minimum at middle and high

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Luwen Chen, Yijun Zhang, Weitao Lu, Dong Zheng, Yang Zhang, Shaodong Chen, and Zhihui Huang

1. Introduction Lightning location systems (LLSs) have been widely applied in many countries and regions as pivotal equipment for lightning detection. The detection efficiency and location accuracy are considered to be the most important performance indices for LLSs. One of the directly effective methods for objectively evaluating performance of LLS is to compare the reliable observation of lightning ground truth with the corresponding LLS records. Triggered lightning observation experiments

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