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Xiaohang Wen
,
Shihua Lu
, and
Jiming Jin

land use classification scheme ( Chen and Dudhia 2001a , b ). The feedback of these land surface forcings are then captured in the models. The distribution and variation of land use types play a key role in changes of atmospheric local circulation, precipitation, temperature, and humidity. Research on the impact of land use change on land surface processes includes the “urban heat island effect” and the effects caused by variable and changing crops. Case et al. (2008) found that using the high

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Soon-Hwan Lee
and
Hae-Dong Kim

occur not only in coastal areas but also in inland basins in east Asia, especially in China, Japan, and Korea. However, regional circulation in an inland basin tends to be complicated because the effects of topographic and urban heat islands function simultaneously. The importance of topographic effects on local circulation has been demonstrated in previous studies ( Kimura and Arakawa 1983 ; Kondo et al. 1989 ; Kuwagata et al. 1990 ; Daul and Pielke 1993 ; Kimura and Kuwagata 1993 ; Lee and

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Jeff C. F. Lo
,
Alexis K. H. Lau
,
Fei Chen
,
Jimmy C. H. Fung
, and
Kenneth K. M. Leung

potential effects of rapid urban growth on the local wind and temperature structures in the PRD. We present in section 2 the numerical models and data used in this study. Section 3 summarizes the results from numerical simulations using three different urban land-use treatments and their evaluation. In section 4 , numerical experiments using different scenarios of urban extension are explored. 2. Numerical models and land-use distribution in the PRD a. Meteorological model and configuration The

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Sijia Zhang
,
Zhaoming Liang
,
Donghai Wang
, and
Guixing Chen

. Chen et al. 2017 ; N. Wu et al. 2020a ), local orographic lifting and thermal effects ( X. Chen et al. 2017 ; Chen and Zhang 2021 ), and precipitation-induced cold outflows ( Wang et al. 2014 ; Wu and Luo 2016 ; Liu et al. 2018 ). Some studies note the CI occurrence in inland regions of South China, but the triggering mechanisms are less understood than those of coastal events ( Liu et al. 2019 ; Sun et al. 2019 ; N. Wu et al. 2020b ). Luo et al. (2020) summarized four major types of

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Bruce B. Hicks
,
William R. Pendergrass III
,
Christoph A. Vogel
, and
Richard S. Artz

of 2010. DCNet employs three-dimensional sonic-anemometer systems at a nominal height of 10 m above large buildings (e.g., Fig. 2 ) and located to minimize possible effects of roof edges and nearby structures. Data from the sonic anemometers are accessed at 10 Hz by local data-acquisition systems that compute all averages, variances, and covariances over 15-min periods. Every 15 min, computed results are transmitted via cellular modem to a central archive at the Atmospheric Turbulence and

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Carolina E. Roman
,
Amanda H. Lynch
, and
Dale Dominey-Howes

1. Introduction Research on adaptation strategies is said to focus largely on charactering vulnerability to likely impacts of future climate change ( Kelly and Adger 2000 ; Adger 2006 ; Adger et al. 2009 ; Patt et al. 2009 ; Schipper and Burton 2008 ). Vulnerability, in this instance, is depicted as the degree to which a system is susceptible to adverse effects (of climate change), where descriptions of stressors, exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity define its character (see Adger

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Chuan-Chi Tu
,
Yi-Leng Chen
,
Ching-Sen Chen
,
Pay-Liam Lin
, and
Po-Hsiung Lin

under favorable large-scale conditions, diurnal and local effects are important for the timing and location of heavy rainfall occurrences. To understand the physical processes leading to the development of localized heavy rainfall, detailed case studies are required. TAMEX (1987) focused on northwestern Taiwan and deployed three C-band Doppler radars over the central and northwestern Taiwan coast ( Kuo and Chen 1990 ). The project also used 85 hourly rain gauges, which were not evenly distributed

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J. Winckler
,
C. H. Reick
, and
J. Pongratz

shortwave radiation budget (e.g., Bonan 2008 ). Second, LCC induces changes in nonradiative properties, such as evapotranspiration efficiency [as defined in the study by Davin and de Noblet-Ducoudré (2010) ] and surface roughness. These biogeophysical effects can alter climate within a grid box undergoing LCC, which we refer to as the local effects. However, in addition to these locally induced effects, climate within a grid box can also be altered by LCC in nearby or remote grid boxes, which we refer

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Stanley A. Changnon Jr.

$78 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGYUrban Effects on Severe Local Storms at St. Louis STmqruE- A. C~ONON, Ja.Illinois $~a4e Wa~r Surly, Urban~ 61801(Manus~pt r~eived 24 Angst 1977, in fin~ fo~ 3 Febm~ 1978)ABSTRACT As part of METROMEX, a five-year study of how St. Louis affects summer weather, studies were madeof possible urban effects on severe local storm phenomena. Localized (within 40 km of the city) increaseswere found in various thunderstorm

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Jian Li
,
Rucong Yu
,
Xiaoyuan Yue
,
Mingming Zhang
, and
Nina Li

coastal South China ( Wang et al. 2015 ; Wu et al. 2019 ), and the urban heat island effects can account for the convective initiation and alter the subsequent regional heavy rainfall distribution ( Yin et al. 2020 ). Fig . 3. (a) Correlation between the LUI and local relief in a 5° latitude sliding window with a step of 1° latitude over 99°–126°E. The x axis presents the correlation values. (b) LUI (black solid lines) and local relief (gray dashed lines) along 26°, 30°, and 36°N. The left y

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