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Xiaohang Wen, Shihua Lu, and Jiming Jin

land use classification scheme ( Chen and Dudhia 2001a , b ). The feedback of these land surface forcings are then captured in the models. The distribution and variation of land use types play a key role in changes of atmospheric local circulation, precipitation, temperature, and humidity. Research on the impact of land use change on land surface processes includes the “urban heat island effect” and the effects caused by variable and changing crops. Case et al. (2008) found that using the high

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Soon-Hwan Lee and Hae-Dong Kim

occur not only in coastal areas but also in inland basins in east Asia, especially in China, Japan, and Korea. However, regional circulation in an inland basin tends to be complicated because the effects of topographic and urban heat islands function simultaneously. The importance of topographic effects on local circulation has been demonstrated in previous studies ( Kimura and Arakawa 1983 ; Kondo et al. 1989 ; Kuwagata et al. 1990 ; Daul and Pielke 1993 ; Kimura and Kuwagata 1993 ; Lee and

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J. Winckler, C. H. Reick, and J. Pongratz

shortwave radiation budget (e.g., Bonan 2008 ). Second, LCC induces changes in nonradiative properties, such as evapotranspiration efficiency [as defined in the study by Davin and de Noblet-Ducoudré (2010) ] and surface roughness. These biogeophysical effects can alter climate within a grid box undergoing LCC, which we refer to as the local effects. However, in addition to these locally induced effects, climate within a grid box can also be altered by LCC in nearby or remote grid boxes, which we refer

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Bruce B. Hicks, William R. Pendergrass III, Christoph A. Vogel, and Richard S. Artz

of 2010. DCNet employs three-dimensional sonic-anemometer systems at a nominal height of 10 m above large buildings (e.g., Fig. 2 ) and located to minimize possible effects of roof edges and nearby structures. Data from the sonic anemometers are accessed at 10 Hz by local data-acquisition systems that compute all averages, variances, and covariances over 15-min periods. Every 15 min, computed results are transmitted via cellular modem to a central archive at the Atmospheric Turbulence and

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Carolina E. Roman, Amanda H. Lynch, and Dale Dominey-Howes

1. Introduction Research on adaptation strategies is said to focus largely on charactering vulnerability to likely impacts of future climate change ( Kelly and Adger 2000 ; Adger 2006 ; Adger et al. 2009 ; Patt et al. 2009 ; Schipper and Burton 2008 ). Vulnerability, in this instance, is depicted as the degree to which a system is susceptible to adverse effects (of climate change), where descriptions of stressors, exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity define its character (see Adger

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Stanley A. Changnon Jr.

$78 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGYUrban Effects on Severe Local Storms at St. Louis STmqruE- A. C~ONON, Ja.Illinois $~a4e Wa~r Surly, Urban~ 61801(Manus~pt r~eived 24 Angst 1977, in fin~ fo~ 3 Febm~ 1978)ABSTRACT As part of METROMEX, a five-year study of how St. Louis affects summer weather, studies were madeof possible urban effects on severe local storm phenomena. Localized (within 40 km of the city) increaseswere found in various thunderstorm

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Chuan-Chi Tu, Yi-Leng Chen, Ching-Sen Chen, Pay-Liam Lin, and Po-Hsiung Lin

under favorable large-scale conditions, diurnal and local effects are important for the timing and location of heavy rainfall occurrences. To understand the physical processes leading to the development of localized heavy rainfall, detailed case studies are required. TAMEX (1987) focused on northwestern Taiwan and deployed three C-band Doppler radars over the central and northwestern Taiwan coast ( Kuo and Chen 1990 ). The project also used 85 hourly rain gauges, which were not evenly distributed

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Guang-Shan Chen, Michael Notaro, Zhengyu Liu, and Yongqiang Liu

following questions need to be addressed in a state-of-the-art fully coupled GCM with a dynamic vegetation and a finite volume dynamical core. 1) What are the potential short-term and long-term local biophysical effects of afforestation over the SEUS? 2) What are the potential remote biophysical effects of afforestation over the SEUS? In this paper, these questions are answered with 80 initial value ensemble experiments and two long quasi-equilibrium experiments by using a fully coupled earth system

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Daniel E. Comarazamy, Jorge E. González, Fred Moshary, and Michael Piasecki

. Since global mean air temperature increases have different effects at regional as compared to local spatial scales ( IPCC 2007 ), effects on lake surface area are specific to how global warming impacts characteristics of local water basins ( Wei et al. 2005 ; Croley and Lewis 2006 ; Yu and Shen 2010 ; Troin et al. 2010 ). Additional factors contributing to the lake growth are LCLU changes, most specifically deforestation and use of land and water agriculture, which affect the lake surface area in

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J. Nalau, S. Becken, S. Noakes, and B. Mackey

growing institutional support and demand to integrate climate information into decision-making ( Weaver et al. 2013 ), and local climate information in particular is seen as helpful in climate adaptation planning ( Bafaluy et al. 2014 ; Hazeleger et al. 2015 ). Yet, such integration has, for the most part, not translated into tangible actions and planning within the sector ( Scott et al. 2016 ). Currently, only limited research exists on the tourism industry’s use of weather forecasts ( Rutty and

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