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Cheng-Han Wu and Huang-Hsiung Hsu

above treat the earth as an aquaplanet and ignore the existence of tropical topography and the land–sea contrast. Recent studies have demonstrated that the topographic effect is likely important in the Maritime Continent where the topography and land–sea contrast are particularly complicated ( Fig. 1a ). In a study of the MJO during the boreal summer, Hsu et al. (2004) revealed that the MJO does not propagate smoothly eastward, as an equatorial wave does. Instead, it is a combination of stationary

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T. D. Keenan and R. E. Carbone

approach undertaken by Carbone et al. (2002) . Spanning the midlatitudes to equatorial regions, precipitation is related to such diverse forcing as monsoons, frontal zones, and subtropical influences under widely varying environmental flow. This occurs over a low-lying and generally arid continent with little terrain above 2 km. In the equatorial zones of the Maritime Continent there is significant terrain extending to 4–6-km height. With this in mind, the association of such diverse influences upon

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Casey R. Densmore, Elizabeth R. Sanabia, and Bradford S. Barrett

addition, no known studies have found a QBO–MJO relationship beyond extended boreal winter (November–March) or considered potential relationships between QBO and the boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation (BSISO; Lawrence and Webster 2002 ). Therefore, a need exists to continue to investigate the QBO–MJO relationship, particularly using methods that identify the QBO at more than one vertical level and in different seasons. A focal point for this analysis is the MJO transit over the Maritime Continent

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Jian-Hua Qian

1. Introduction The Maritime Continent [a term coined by Ramage (1968) , hereafter denoted by MC] consists of a multitude of large and small islands and seas off Southeast Asia. Many islands in the MC are mountainous ( Fig. 1a ). This paper analyzes regional climate processes associated with the diurnal cycles of precipitation and winds over the MC. Understanding of these small-scale processes is important for improving regional climate predictability, which is critical to the enhancement of

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Mingmei Xie, Chunzai Wang, and Sheng Chen

by about 8° of latitude, a zonally confined extent within eastern China, and straight northward propagation (see section 4 for detailed comparisons). Along with the two centers recognized by Wu et al. (2016) , this low-level wave train actually shows a meridional tripolar structure emanating from the South China Sea (SCS). Recently, an anomalous anticyclone over the SCS is found to be associated with the decadal variability of the Maritime Continent (MC) SST ( Xie and Wang 2020 ). This

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James H. Ruppert Jr., Xingchao Chen, and Fuqing Zhang

1. Introduction The diurnal cycle is the leading mode of rainfall variability in many regions of the world, particularly in tropical islands and in continental regions adjacent to warm waters ( Dai 2001 ; Ohsawa et al. 2001 ; Yang and Slingo 2001 ; Neale and Slingo 2003 ; Nesbitt and Zipser 2003 ; Yang and Smith 2006 ; Kikuchi and Wang 2008 ; Johnson 2011 ; Ruppert et al. 2013 ; Chen et al. 2016 ). The Maritime Continent (MC) is exemplary for this, where prominent land–sea breeze

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Jiahao Lu, Tim Li, and Lu Wang

1. Introduction The Maritime Continent (MC) is located in the center of the warm pool connecting the tropical Indian Ocean and western Pacific ( Fig. 1 ). It consists of many islands and shallow oceans with complex land–sea and topography distributions. With abundant moisture, the MC is one of the wettest regions on Earth, with a large annual amount of precipitation. The latent heat release from the precipitation drives the atmospheric circulation throughout the tropics and even affects the

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Lei Song and Renguang Wu

key role in the temperature variations over East Asia. Abdillah et al. (2018) studied the westward or eastward location of cold anomalies over East Asia and found that the location of cold anomalies is related to where the MJO-related tropical heating is situated. These studies consistently showed the occurrence of cold anomalies over eastern China in association with the MJO convection over the tropical Indian Ocean. However, it is not clear if the tropical heating over the Maritime Continent

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Andung Bayu Sekaranom and Hirohiko Masunaga

1. Introduction The Maritime Continent (MC), as introduced by Ramage (1968) , defines an archipelagic area over the tropics and is primarily characterized as one of the highest precipitation areas on Earth. The MC covers a wide area that surrounds Southeast Asian countries between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, that is, peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Brunei, Timor, and New Guinea ( Qian 2008 ). Considerable amounts of precipitation occur over the MC because of a

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Muhammad E. E. Hassim and Bertrand Timbal

1. Introduction The Maritime Continent (MC) is one of the warmest and wettest regions on Earth. Situated within the tropical warm pool between the Indian and Pacific Oceans, the Maritime Continent separates mainland Asia from Australia with its unique geography of landmasses surrounded by very warm (≥28°C) seas. The region itself comprises several large mountainous islands (Sumatra, Kalimantan, Java, Sulawesi, and New Guinea), the Malay Peninsula, the Philippines, and thousands of other smaller

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