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Min Wang
,
Shudao Zhou
,
Zhanhua Liu
, and
Yangchun Zhang

surveillance have been studied over the past several years. Steffens (1949) proposed an idea of measuring visibility by using the visual characteristics of images, which is first measures the physical characteristics of the atmosphere and then indirectly transforms them into visibility. Bellver (1987) used a 1-yr measurement test to determine the meteorological range, which was performed by photographing black targets and the sky by an automatic recording microdensitometer. Kimura et al. (2007

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Enrico Chinchella
,
Arianna Cauteruccio
, and
Luca G. Lanza

Jarden et al. (2016) , who took measurements from two gauges in Parma, Ohio (United States), to monitor green infrastructure. WXT520 sensors are utilized in various measurement networks, including the USArray Transportable Array (TA) which is part of the EarthScope Initiative funded by the National Science Foundation. This array has around 400 stations deployed across the continental United States. Twenty-five of these stations have a Vaisala WXT520 weather station installed to create an array of

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Mohammad Kazemi
,
Babak Khorsandi
, and
Laurent Mydlarski

1. Introduction Acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADVs) have been extensively used for both laboratory and field research over the past decades. The ability of ADVs to make nonintrusive, three-dimensional velocity measurements—even in nonclean environments—and their relatively low cost make them a compelling choice in many circumstances. The precision and sources of error of ADVs in the measurements of the mean and higher-order statistics of turbulent flows have been quantified. More precisely, it

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D. Prokić

6?2 JOURNAL OF ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC TECHNOLOGY VOLUME2On a Method for Increasing the Resolution of Atmospheric Pressure Measurements D. PROKI~Federal Bureau of Measurements, Mike Alasa 14, 11000 Belgrade. Yugoslavia28 November 1984 and 5 April 1985ABSTRAC~ It is known that conventional methods for determining atmospheric pressure by measuring the length-heightof the mercury column in Torriceli's Tube (TT) give resolution up

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Ming-Huei Chang
,
Ren-Chieh Lien
,
Yiing Jang Yang
, and
Tswen Yung Tang

their generation and dissipation sites and for estimating their intensity, energy, and energy flux. Shipboard and moored acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements capture velocity fluctuations associated with NLIWs ( Chang et al. 2008 ; Lien et al. 2010, manuscript submitted to J. Phys. Oceanogr. ; Alford et al. 2010 ; Ramp et al. 2010 ). NLIWs may have vertical currents as large as O (0.1 m s −1 ) and are often distinct in ADCP vertical velocity records. ADCP velocity measurements

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Alexandre P. Fischer

1. Introduction a. Manual snow depth measurements In Canada, for all meteorological stations prior to the 1960s, and for most nonsynoptic stations over their entire history, snowboards were used to measure new snow within a specified time period ( Potter 1965 ). The depth of snow on the board was measured with a ruler that, since 1978, has been 1 m long and graduated every 0.2 cm. The board was then reset on the surface of the snow cover to prepare for the next snowfall (SF) event. A limitation

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H. Czerski

1. Introduction The presence of bubbles in a liquid can have a considerable influence on that liquid’s optical and acoustical properties, as well as providing opportunities for the exchange of gases across the bubble boundary. Consequently, accurate measurement of the number and size of the bubbles present is desirable in many fields of science, for example, chemical engineering, medicine, and oceanography. The aim of the research presented in this paper is to improve the measurement of the

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Mathew R. Schwaller
and
K. Robert Morris

1. Introduction In collaboration with its international partners, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a Ground Validation System (GVS) as a contribution to the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission. In the United States, GPM has been recognized as a key weather and climate mission for providing uniform, global precipitation products that leverage all available satellites capable of precipitation measurement ( NAS 2007 ). In achieving these goals, GPM

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Alan R. Bandy
,
Terese L. Bandy
,
Otto Youngbluth
, and
Thomas L. Owens

MARCH 1987 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE 227 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE Trace Gas Measurements from Tethered Balloon Platforms ALAN R. BANDY AND TERESE L. BANDY Chemistry Department, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 OTTO YOUNGBLUTH AND THOMAS L. OWENS Aerosol Measurements Branch, Langley Research Center, NASA, Hampton, VA 23665 17 June 1985 and 20 April 1986

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Francesco Raffa
,
Giovanni Ludeno
,
Giuseppa Buscaino
,
Gianmaria Sannino
,
Adriana Carillo
,
Rosario Grammauta
,
Domenico Spoto
,
Francesco Soldovieri
,
Salvatore Mazzola
, and
Francesco Serafino

. Therefore, in the development of a noise-monitoring plan in marine shallow waters, a comparative study coupling wave data and underwater acoustic measurements contributes to distinguishing the main natural abiotic underwater noise from anthropogenic noise ( Buscaino et al. 2016 ). X-band marine radars are useful active microwave remote sensing systems for sea-state monitoring either offshore or close to the coastline. Sea surface analyses by marine radar are based on the acquisition of consecutive radar

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