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N. Pinardi, A. Bonaduce, A. Navarra, S. Dobricic, and P. Oddo

(2012) have analyzed different processes implied by the sea level equation in global climate models, but their formulation did not point out the effects of lateral boundary terms as we do in this paper. We apply our formalism to the Mediterranean Sea case where important lateral fluxes occur at Gibraltar that add complexity to the dynamics of the MSL and we determine for the first time the different dynamical contributions to the MSL tendency in this region. We will use a 10-yr simulation dataset

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Ichiro Fukumori, Dimitris Menemenlis, and Tong Lee

1. Introduction The Mediterranean Sea, being a semienclosed basin, is often considered a test bed for studying ocean general circulation. Its relatively small size in comparison with the global ocean is conducive to synoptic observations [e.g., the Physical Oceanography of the Eastern Mediterranean program; POEM Group (1992) ] and high-resolution numerical modeling (e.g., Korres et al. 2000 ). Yet its basin-wide circulation cannot be considered in isolation. Exchange through the Strait of

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Mario Adani, Srdjan Dobricic, and Nadia Pinardi

observational datasets may be scarcer at regional levels, and higher-resolution models are required to represent the dynamics correctly ( Douglass et al. 2009 ). The advent of operational oceanography ( Pinardi and Woods 2002 ) and the setup of real-time monitoring systems now allows high-resolution regional ocean reanalyses with a relevant number of observations and calibrated models to be carried out for the first time. In this paper we will describe the first ocean reanalysis for the Mediterranean Sea

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Denis L. Volkov, Molly Baringer, David Smeed, William Johns, and Felix W. Landerer

circulation into record-low NAO negative states in both winters of 2009/10 and 2010/11 ( Cunningham et al. 2013 ; Bryden et al. 2014 ). Interestingly, on month-to-month time scales, the AMOC transport is negatively correlated with nearly basin-wide variations of sea level in the Mediterranean Sea: a stronger/weaker AMOC is associated with a lower/higher sea level ( Figs. 2 , 3a ). In particular, the observed AMOC slowdown in 2009/10 and then again in winter 2010/11 coincided with the extreme nonseasonal

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Simon O. Krichak, Joseph S. Breitgand, and Steven B. Feldstein

1. Introduction Among the various synoptic processes that take place over northeastern Africa and the southeastern Mediterranean Sea region (MR) that contribute significantly to precipitation, an important place is occupied by a phenomenon characterized by a tongue of low pressure extending northward from the southern Red Sea toward the eastern Mediterranean (EM) ( Ashbel 1938 ; El-Fandy 1948 ), that is, the Red Sea Trough (RST) system. The RST attains its largest amplitude in the lower

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M.-I. Pujol, S. Dobricic, N. Pinardi, and M. Adani

manuscript). The numerical model has a resolution of (approximately 6.5 km), and it is able to represent eddies because the first Rossby radius of deformation is 10 km. Eddies in the Mediterranean are pervasive ( Millot 1999 ; Millot and Taupier-Letage 2005 ; Robinson et al. 2001 ), and the reproduction of mesoscales in the sea surface variability is a key parameter that is used to judge the quality of the assimilation and model system. Furthermore, we will assess the optimal satellite multimission

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Pierre Queffeulou and Abderrahim Bentamy

1. Introduction The wind and wave conditions over the Mediterranean Sea are characterized by particularly high space and time variability. There are several reasons for this. First, the Mediterranean Sea is located at the boundary between three typical meteorological weather patterns: the oceanic regime of the northeast Atlantic Ocean, dominated by both the position and movement of the Azores high pressure area and the low pressure systems moving across the northeast Atlantic Ocean; the warm

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S. Mangiarotti and F. Lyard

1. Introduction Sea level elevation (SLE) is one of the major indicators of climate evolution. Several processes can affect SLE on the time scale considered here (3–9 yr) in the Mediterranean Sea. Among the possible sources causing SLE variations are 1) temperature variations, in deep water (as it was observed by Béthoux et al. 1990 , 1998 ; Mangiarotti 2003 ) and in surface water ( Cazenave et al. 2001 ; Mangiarotti 2003 ), which contribute to the water column dilatation and contraction. 2

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Vassilis P. Papadopoulos, Simon A. Josey, Aristides Bartzokas, Samuel Somot, Simon Ruiz, and Paraskevi Drakopoulou

example, increase in SST and strong positive buoyancy over traditional sites of intermediate- or deep-water formation may prevent or reduce the deep-water oxygenation. The future adjustment and evolution of the global ecosystem is directly linked to the response and feedback of the air–sea heat flux to climate change. The Mediterranean is a marginal sea located across a dynamic border that separates two different climatic areas: Europe and North Africa. One of the most important oceanographic

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Sandro Finardi, Giuseppe Agrillo, Rita Baraldi, Giuseppe Calori, Pantaleone Carlucci, Paolo Ciccioli, Alessio D’Allura, Daniele Gasbarra, Beniamino Gioli, Vincenzo Magliulo, Paola Radice, Piero Toscano, and Alessandro Zaldei

). Summertime atmospheric circulation in the western Mediterranean Basin is characterized by distinctive features: the presence of mountains close to coastal areas favors the combination of land–sea breezes, mountain–valley breezes, and slope winds, generating return flows possibly across several layers ( Millán et al. 2000 ). Daytime compensatory subsidence over the coast and sea can be superimposed on large-scale subsidence because of the anticyclonic circulation over the basin. Nighttime land breeze can

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