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Qingxuan Yang, Wei Zhao, Xinfeng Liang, Jihai Dong, and Jiwei Tian

in January 2014, December 2013, and August 2007. b. Submesoscale motion Both numerical simulations and satellite observations suggest that submesoscale motions are frequently created from mesoscale eddies and can be detected clearly in the eddy periphery (e.g., Capet et al. 2008a ; Gaultier et al. 2014 ). Submesoscale motion provides a dynamic conduit for energy transfer toward microscale dissipation and diapycnal mixing ( McWilliams 2016 ). We suspect the submesoscale process existed in the

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Timothy M. Barzyk and John E. Frederick

distinct microclimates. Microscale effects dominate surface energy fluxes and climatological variables within the urban canopy layer (UCL), at length scales similar to those of individual structures ( Pearlmutter and Berliner 2005 ; Grimmond et al. 2004 ). The UCL extends from ground level to mean building height. The roughness sublayer is that part of the atmospheric surface layer where flow is dynamically influenced by individual roughness elements. Typically, flow in the surface layer is smoothed

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Isidora Jankov, Jian-Wen Bao, Paul J. Neiman, Paul J. Schultz, Huiling Yuan, and Allen B. White

Valley. One important aspect of the HMT research is to understand microphysical processes active within the orographically induced/enhanced precipitation and improve the microphysical parameterizations in numerical weather prediction models, leading to improvements in quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs). For the region of interest three distinct rainfall regimes based on radar reflectivity are identified and their contribution to the total rainfall observed estimated: bright band (BB

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Jacob Berg, Edward G. Patton, and Peter P. Sullivan

1. Introduction Large-eddy simulation (LES) has become an essential tool for studying a wide range of societal pertinent atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) applications (e.g., wind energy meteorology; Calaf et al. 2010 ; Abkar and Porté-Agel 2013 ; Churchfield et al. 2012 ; Sørensen et al. 2015 ; Allaerts and Meyers 2015 ) where accurate simulation and representation of near-surface processes are needed. Hence the community needs to thoroughly investigate the numerous assumptions, components

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Jake Badger, Helmut Frank, Andrea N. Hahmann, and Gregor Giebel

mesoscale-model-derived data in a microscale model. The downscaling results using the mesoscale to microscale model chain will be compared to measurements at the wind farm site. Models within WAsP ( Troen and Petersen 1989 ) introduce the effects of microscale terrain into the generalized wind climate. The process is the generalization in reverse. Figure 11 is analogous to Fig. 10 but this time for the orography and roughness description at very high resolution and at the height of the anemometer

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Daniel Vassallo, Raghavendra Krishnamurthy, Robert Menke, and Harindra J. S. Fernando

eliciting dynamical and thermodynamical processes of microscale flow in complex terrain while contributing to the development of microscale models for wind-resource prospecting and mapping. One of the ridges has a microscale depression (gap), and therefore a subexperiment was conducted by deploying a dedicated set of instruments within the overall Perdigão campaign. To our knowledge, this is the first reported comprehensive microscale gap flow field investigation. Section 2 presents theoretical

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Joël Jaffrain and Alexis Berne

nugget and the slope . The slope parameter indicates how fast Z ( x ) is varying with the distance lag. The nugget, similarly to c 0 for spatial correlation, quantifies the variability at very short distance lags (with respect to the minimum distance lag of the network). The nugget effect is explained by the possible variability of the considered process at interdistances smaller than the minimum interdistance in the network (all microscale variability; below 80 m in our case) and/or by

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Yasutaka Goto, Ichiro Yasuda, and Maki Nagasawa

1. Introduction Vertical turbulent mixing is a key process in the global ocean circulations, affecting the diapycnal transport of heat and salt as well as biogeochemical substances, such as nutrients, carbon, and trace metals. Turbulent mixing is estimated from measurements of the microstructure in velocity or temperature, with spatial scales of a few centimeters. As the measurements are susceptible to contamination by the vibration of an instrument, free-fall or free-rise profilers have been

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Ann E. Gargett

energy-containing scales are almost always anisotropic, since they bear the imprint of the instability process(es) that supply them with energy and/or that of nearby boundaries. This is true regardless of whether the Reynolds number is sufficiently high to produce local isotropy ( Kolmogoroff 1941 ), that is, an inertial subrange of isotropic eddies between these energy-containing scales and the dissipation scales that irreversibly remove their energy. In the ocean, stable stratification, vertical

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Hugh Morrison and Wojciech W. Grabowski

schemes are potentially more robust since they allow the mean particle size to evolve as a free parameter. They also provide a more realistic treatment of cloud–aerosol interactions since cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) directly impact the droplet number concentration through nucleation processes. The bulk approach was extended to the ice phase using a similar separation between cloud ice and large precipitating ice (e.g., Lin et al. 1983 ; Rutledge and Hobbs 1984 ; Dudhia 1989 ; Ferrier 1994

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