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Bryan C. Weare and Amip Modeling Groups

DECEMBER 1996 W E A R E 3419Evaluation of the Vertical Structure of Zonally Averaged Cloudiness and Its Variability in the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project BRYAN C. WEAREAtmospheric Science Program, University of California at Davis, Davis, California AMIP MODELING GROUPS,*(Manuscript received 14 June 1995, in final form 13 May 1996

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Rebecca J. Ross, William P. Elliott, Dian J. Seidel, and Participating AMIP-II Modeling Groups

water vapor (e.g., Hall and Manabe 1999 ; Garratt et al. 1999 ). Surface and tropospheric warming lead to enhanced tropospheric specific humidity, which, by virtue of the greenhouse effect of water vapor, further warms the surface. Here, model simulations from the second Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP II) are examined to determine how well the models simulate the observed joint distributions of temperature and humidity. This comparison provides a second-order test of the models

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Boualem Khouider and Andrew J. Majda

). Convectively coupled Kelvin waves associated with the deepest baroclinic mode dominate the spectral variability on the synoptic scales and propagate, along the equator, at speeds ranging from 12 to 20 m s −1 , unlike their dry counterparts that travel at 50 m s −1 ( Kiladis et al. 2009 ). For almost a decade, simple primitive equation models involving a single baroclinic vertical mode, forced by deep convection, have been used with some relative success for theoretical and numerical studies of

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Hans Burchard, Robert D. Hetland, Elisabeth Schulz, and Henk M. Schuttelaars

1. Introduction The aim of this study is to quantify the contributions of major processes to longitudinal and lateral residual circulation in tidally energetic estuaries. For this purpose, a two-dimensional cross-sectional numerical model is applied, with prescribed longitudinal salinity gradients and barotropic pressure gradients induced by semidiurnal tidal forcing, under the assumption that all other longitudinal gradients are negligible. The residual circulation is decomposed into residual

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Brian Scanlon, Øyvind Breivik, Jean-Raymond Bidlot, Peter A. E. M. Janssen, Adrian H. Callaghan, and Brian Ward

1. Introduction Accurate estimates of the energy dissipated from the oceanic wave field due to wave breaking is a vital requirement for improving wave models, upper-ocean turbulence models, and knowledge of ocean–atmosphere interactions for gas transfer. Whitecaps appear when the wind exceeds approximately 3 m s −1 under open ocean conditions ( Monahan 1971 ; Stramska and Petelski 2003 ; Scanlon and Ward 2015, manuscript submitted to J. Geophys. Res. Oceans ). The occurrence of whitecaps

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Carsten Eden, Lars Czeschel, and Dirk Olbers

R o Rossby radius. Also shown are surface gravity waves. Different solid lines denote different vertical modes or vertical wavenumbers. Small-scale turbulence is separated from the waves by the Ozmidov scale L o . Gray boxes denote scales currently covered by non-eddy-resolving (dark) or eddy-permitting (light) ocean models. The expected gain in computer power in the next 10 yr allows the extension of the ocean boxes by the dashed lines. Adopted from Olbers et al. (2012) . On the other hand

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Zhenghui Xie, Zhenhua Di, Zhendong Luo, and Qian Ma

plays in climate has been implicitly accounted for in several studies (e.g., Salvucci and Entekhabi 1995 ; Levine and Salvucci 1999 ; Chen and Kumar 2001 ; Seuffert et al. 2002 ; Gedney and Cox 2003 ; Yang and Niu 2003 ; Yuan et al. 2008a , b ) that have shown the importance of representing shallow groundwater and its interaction with soil moisture in land surface hydrological simulations. Therefore, developing an appropriate groundwater–soil water interaction model for climate modeling will

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C. L. Tague and L. E. Band

1. Introduction The Regional Hydro-Ecological Simulation System (RHESSys) is a hydroecological model designed to simulate integrated water, carbon, and nutrient cycling and transport over spatially variable terrain at small (first-order streams) to medium (fourth- and fifth-order streams) scales. The model is structured as a spatially nested hierarchical representation of the landscape with a range of hydrological, microclimate, and ecosystem processes associated with specific landscape objects

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Samuel N. Stechmann and Bjorn Stevens

by designing multiscale models. One example of a multiscale process in clouds is the entrainment of ambient air parcels into a cloud updraft ( Blyth 1993 ; Houze 1993 ; Stevens 2005 ). This involves the interaction between a large-scale updraft envelope and the smaller-scale fluctuations within it: the dynamics of the updraft envelope can potentially promote entrainment, and the cumulative effects of many entrainment events can potentially affect the larger-scale updraft. Important aspects of

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Felicity S. Graham, Jaclyn N. Brown, Andrew T. Wittenberg, and Neil J. Holbrook

trade winds, leading to surface wind stress changes that reinforce the original SST anomaly—a positive feedback mechanism collectively known as the Bjerknes positive feedback. Since the seminal work of Bjerknes (1969) , other important research has been undertaken to identify and describe the feedback mechanisms underpinning the decay and phase change of ENSO events and to test their ability to represent ENSO variability ( Barnett 1977 ). Conceptual models have played a very valuable role in

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