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J. F. Scinocca
,
V. V. Kharin
,
Y. Jiao
,
M. W. Qian
,
M. Lazare
,
L. Solheim
,
G. M. Flato
,
S. Biner
,
M. Desgagne
, and
B. Dugas

1. Introduction At the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis (CCCma), a new regional climate model, the CCCma Regional Climate Model (CanRCM4), has been developed. CanRCM4’s novelty does not arise from the method of solution in its dynamical core or the climate-based physics package it employs. Both of these are well known and currently operational for global model applications. The novelty of CanRCM4 stems from a new philosophy of coordinating the development and application of

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Fang Dong
,
Yangchun Li
,
Bin Wang
,
Wenyu Huang
,
Yanyan Shi
, and
Wenhao Dong

1. Introduction The ocean plays key roles in regulating atmospheric CO 2 concentration and affecting climate change ( Sabine et al. 2004 ; Le Quéré et al. 2009 , 2010 ; Doney et al. 2014 ). The ocean had taken 48% of the total anthropogenic CO 2 emissions during 1800–1994 based on direct measurements of inorganic carbon ( Sabine et al. 2004 ) and had taken about 33% of the total anthropogenic CO 2 emissions during 1960–2007 based on models forced by observed atmospheric CO 2 ( Sarmiento

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José A. Ruiz-Arias
,
Clara Arbizu-Barrena
,
Francisco J. Santos-Alamillos
,
Joaquín Tovar-Pescador
, and
David Pozo-Vázquez

models from the top of the atmosphere to the surface ( Wild 2005 ). These uncertainties have been related to misrepresentations of clouds and aerosols ( Wild et al. 1995 , 2013 ; Bellouin et al. 2005 ; Wild 2005 ; Kim and Ramanathan, 2008 ; Oreopoulos et al. 2012 ). Most of the studies that have evaluated the ability of atmospheric models to represent the surface solar radiation budget have been conducted using general circulation models (GCMs). Yang et al. (2006) evaluated the National

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Shuangmei Ma
and
Tianjun Zhou

physically consistent evidence for a reduction in the strength of PWC during the twentieth century in observations of sea level pressure (SLP), precipitation, sea surface temperature (SST), cloud, and surface wind ( Tanaka et al. 2004 ; Vecchi et al. 2006 ; Zhang and Song 2006 ; Deser et al. 2010 ; Tokinaga et al. 2012b ). Most coupled model simulations also indicate a slowdown of PWC over the twentieth century ( Vecchi and Soden 2007 ; DiNezio et al. 2009 ; Power and Kociuba 2011 ; DiNezio et al

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James A. Anstey
,
John F. Scinocca
, and
Martin Keller

–gravity waves to small-scale gravity waves ( Baldwin et al. 2001 ). Although the basic wave–mean-flow interaction mechanism that forces the QBO is well established ( Lindzen and Holton 1968 ; Holton and Lindzen 1972 ), determining the details of this wave spectrum remains a challenge. This presents difficulties when attempting to accurately represent the QBO from first principles in stratosphere-resolving atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs). Such models often do not spontaneously generate a QBO

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Harold D. B. S. Heorton
,
Daniel L. Feltham
, and
Julian C. R. Hunt

floes of the central ice pack (1–30 km in diameter; Herman 2010 ), which are heavily compacted. The broken floes of the MIZ create a rougher surface for atmosphere and ocean flows compared to both the open ocean and sea ice pack due to the form drag from the floe edges ( Guest et al. 1995 ; Lüpkes et al. 2012 ). Understanding MIZ dynamics is needed to improve ice forecasting and climate modeling. There are many complex interactions within the MIZ aside from dynamics including sea ice melting and

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Randal D. Koster
,
Qing Liu
,
Sarith P. P. Mahanama
, and
Rolf H. Reichle

Rosnay et al. 2013 ; Carrera et al. 2015 ; De Lannoy and Reichle 2016a , b ). The L4_SM product has already been evaluated successfully against a host of in situ soil moisture observations ( Reichle et al. 2017a ) and in the context of key assimilation diagnostics ( Reichle et al. 2017b ). SMAP data, however, can potentially interface with an LSM in another useful way: through the calibration of model parameters. Calibration in this context involves identifying the values of targeted parameters

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Peng Bai
,
Xiaomang Liu
,
Tiantian Yang
,
Fadong Li
,
Kang Liang
,
Shanshan Hu
, and
Changming Liu

1. Introduction Potential evapotranspiration (PET), which represents the evaporative power of the atmosphere and determines the maximum possible water loss from the land surface, is a necessary input for hydrological models ( Federer et al. 1996 ; Vicente-Serrano et al. 2014 ). Numerous methods have been proposed to estimate PET in past decades. Different PET estimation methods can behave differently and simulated PET values are not always in agreement with each other because of the different

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Qiudong Zhao
,
Shiqiang Zhang
,
Yong Jian Ding
,
Jian Wang
,
Haidong Han
,
Junli Xu
,
Chuancheng Zhao
,
Wanqin Guo
, and
Donghui Shangguan

, the glacier runoff has increased because of the ample quantities of water supplied by retreating glaciers. However, continuing loss of glacier mass will gradually reduce both glacier-fed and total runoff ( Braun et al. 2000 ; Hock 2005 ; Hagg et al. 2007 ; Zhao et al. 2013 ). This loss will eventually transform glacial–nival runoff regimes into nival–pluvial regimes, which will generate much greater interannual variability of water yield ( Malone 2010 ; Sorg et al. 2012 ). Successful models of

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Richard M. Hodur
and
Bogumil Jakubiak

1. Introduction High-resolution numerical weather models have been demonstrated to be an effective way to supplement and enhance the prediction of meteorological phenomena by coarser-resolution models at operational and research weather centers and agencies around the world. In 1997, The Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling (ICM), located within the University of Warsaw, in Poland, made a commitment to providing high-resolution numerical weather forecasts by

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