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Qianwen Luo and Wen-wen Tung

extratropical cyclones and depleted by the oceanic precipitation in association with several WCBs. Cordeira et al. (2013) looked at the development, evolution, and merger of two ARs in proximity to tropical cyclones. Based on the trajectory analysis and moisture budget computed from reanalysis and satellite observations along the ARs, they found that the tropical cyclones can influence the midlatitude ARs through its interactions with the North Pacific jet stream. Before the two ARs merged, evaporation

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Xiuzhen Li, Wen Zhou, Deliang Chen, Chongyin Li, and Jie Song

impacts ( Weng et al. 2007 , 2009 ). Given the great importance of moisture transport in modulating regional rainfall, discrepancies between CT and WP El Niño, and the likelihood of more frequent WP El Niño under global warming ( Yeh et al. 2009 ), it is worth investigating how the two types of ENSO events individually affect the moisture circulation and thus the moisture budget over eastern China. In this paper, the data and methodology are described in section 2 . The evolutions of the diverse

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Peter J. Lamb, Diane H. Portis, and Abraham Zangvil

Kassianov 2008 ), tropical marine cloud clusters (e.g., Yanai et al. 1973 ; Cheng 1989 ), and vigorous continental mesoscale convective systems (e.g., Cho and Ogura 1974 ; Maddox 1983 ; Schumacher and Johnson 2005 ; Coniglio et al. 2010 ). On greatly extended scales, the roles of these moisture sources have been assessed in the context of atmospheric water budgets for diverse large regions (e.g., Benton et al. 1950 , Mississippi basin; Budyko 1974 , 239–243, European Union of Soviet Socialist

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Lan Dai, Jonathon S. Wright, and Rong Fu

anomalies requires detailed diagnosis of the moisture budget and its relationships to changes in the energy budget and large-scale circulation ( Seager and Henderson 2013 ). Moisture budget analysis, which relates regional precipitation and evaporation to moisture flux convergence, has been demonstrated to be useful in determining the causes of extreme hydroclimatic events, as precipitation anomalies are directly affected by changes in moisture sources and transport ( Seager et al. 2010 ). Further

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Tao Feng, Jia-Yuh Yu, Xiu-Qun Yang, and Ronghui Huang

MJO ( Maloney 2009 ; Benedict and Randall 2007 ; Cai et al. 2013 ; Janiga and Zhang 2016 ; Sobel et al. 2014 ; Andersen and Kuang 2012 ; Adames 2017 ; Hung and Sui 2018 ) and equatorial inertia–gravity waves ( Inoue and Back 2015 ; Sumi and Masunaga 2016 ). Alternatively, moisture budgets have also been widely used because the increase or decrease of tropospheric moisture dominates the import or export of the column-integrated MSE ( Rydbeck and Maloney 2015 ; Hannah et al. 2016 ; Janiga

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Samar Minallah and Allison L. Steiner

1. Introduction Precipitation is a principal component in the land and atmospheric moisture budgets, regulating the water availability and quality in the Great Lakes watersheds and various processes including surface runoff, lake levels, soil moisture, and groundwater reserves. It is affected both by local feedback mechanisms—that is, regional evapotranspiration resulting in recycled precipitation ( Dominguez et al. 2006 ; Lamb et al. 2012 )—and large-scale processes in the form of atmospheric

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Ángel F. Adames and Yi Ming

the best of our knowledge, the first study to examine the water vapor budget of SMDs was Yoon and Chen (2005) . They found that the leading balance in SMDs involves import of moisture through convergence and loss of moisture through condensation and precipitation. Their study, however, only considered the Eulerian temporal tendency in moisture over a limited domain near the center of the vortex. Thus, their study does not take into account the propagation of the moisture anomalies. However

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Matthew A. Janiga and Chidong Zhang

the moisture budget. In tropical regions with high rain rates, there is often a large cancellation between the drying due to Q 2 and the large-scale vertical moisture advection ( Chikira 2014 ). In such regimes, the vertical velocity can be related to Q 1 by assuming that vertical potential temperature advection and Q 1 are balanced. This is closely related to the WTG and weak pressure gradient or damped-wave approximations, which have been applied interactively within several CRM studies in

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Guiling Wang, Yeonjoo Kim, and Dagang Wang

variability in the Third Hadley Centre Coupled Atmospheric Model (HadAM3), a model with very weak soil moisture–precipitation coupling as shown by Koster et al. (2004) , and found that the coupling between soil moisture and precipitation remains weak despite a strengthened soil moisture–evaporation relationship. The current study examines how changes in the parameterization of canopy hydrological processes, through its impact on surface water budget, influence the strength of soil moisture

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Benoît Vannière, Malcolm Roberts, Pier Luigi Vidale, Kevin Hodges, Marie-Estelle Demory, Louis-Philippe Caron, Enrico Scoccimarro, Laurent Terray, and Retish Senan

some models simulate a number of tropical cyclones per year in close agreement with the observations when their grid spacing comes close to 0.25°, their intensity still remains underestimated at these resolutions. It is less clear however, how resolution affects the moisture budget of tropical cyclones and thereby their contribution to the global hydrological cycle. In this study, we will assess the reliability of the moisture budget of TCs in GCMs and the potential for improvement when horizontal

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