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Qianwen Luo and Wen-wen Tung

extratropical cyclones and depleted by the oceanic precipitation in association with several WCBs. Cordeira et al. (2013) looked at the development, evolution, and merger of two ARs in proximity to tropical cyclones. Based on the trajectory analysis and moisture budget computed from reanalysis and satellite observations along the ARs, they found that the tropical cyclones can influence the midlatitude ARs through its interactions with the North Pacific jet stream. Before the two ARs merged, evaporation

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Xiuzhen Li, Wen Zhou, Deliang Chen, Chongyin Li, and Jie Song

impacts ( Weng et al. 2007 , 2009 ). Given the great importance of moisture transport in modulating regional rainfall, discrepancies between CT and WP El Niño, and the likelihood of more frequent WP El Niño under global warming ( Yeh et al. 2009 ), it is worth investigating how the two types of ENSO events individually affect the moisture circulation and thus the moisture budget over eastern China. In this paper, the data and methodology are described in section 2 . The evolutions of the diverse

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Peter J. Lamb, Diane H. Portis, and Abraham Zangvil

Kassianov 2008 ), tropical marine cloud clusters (e.g., Yanai et al. 1973 ; Cheng 1989 ), and vigorous continental mesoscale convective systems (e.g., Cho and Ogura 1974 ; Maddox 1983 ; Schumacher and Johnson 2005 ; Coniglio et al. 2010 ). On greatly extended scales, the roles of these moisture sources have been assessed in the context of atmospheric water budgets for diverse large regions (e.g., Benton et al. 1950 , Mississippi basin; Budyko 1974 , 239–243, European Union of Soviet Socialist

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Lan Dai, Jonathon S. Wright, and Rong Fu

anomalies requires detailed diagnosis of the moisture budget and its relationships to changes in the energy budget and large-scale circulation ( Seager and Henderson 2013 ). Moisture budget analysis, which relates regional precipitation and evaporation to moisture flux convergence, has been demonstrated to be useful in determining the causes of extreme hydroclimatic events, as precipitation anomalies are directly affected by changes in moisture sources and transport ( Seager et al. 2010 ). Further

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Tao Feng, Jia-Yuh Yu, Xiu-Qun Yang, and Ronghui Huang

MJO ( Maloney 2009 ; Benedict and Randall 2007 ; Cai et al. 2013 ; Janiga and Zhang 2016 ; Sobel et al. 2014 ; Andersen and Kuang 2012 ; Adames 2017 ; Hung and Sui 2018 ) and equatorial inertia–gravity waves ( Inoue and Back 2015 ; Sumi and Masunaga 2016 ). Alternatively, moisture budgets have also been widely used because the increase or decrease of tropospheric moisture dominates the import or export of the column-integrated MSE ( Rydbeck and Maloney 2015 ; Hannah et al. 2016 ; Janiga

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Johannes Mayer, Michael Mayer, and Leopold Haimberger

patterns of net heat uptake by the oceans, where most of the excess heat arising from anthropogenic climate change is stored ( von Schuckmann et al. 2020 ). The atmospheric moisture cycle represents the link between the energy budget and the mass budget. Evaporation transfers water vapor and thus mass and latent heat into the atmosphere, which subsequently transports moisture to regions where precipitation exceeds evaporation, where the latent heat is released and warms the atmosphere. Changes to the

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Samar Minallah and Allison L. Steiner

1. Introduction Precipitation is a principal component in the land and atmospheric moisture budgets, regulating the water availability and quality in the Great Lakes watersheds and various processes including surface runoff, lake levels, soil moisture, and groundwater reserves. It is affected both by local feedback mechanisms—that is, regional evapotranspiration resulting in recycled precipitation ( Dominguez et al. 2006 ; Lamb et al. 2012 )—and large-scale processes in the form of atmospheric

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Ángel F. Adames and Yi Ming

the best of our knowledge, the first study to examine the water vapor budget of SMDs was Yoon and Chen (2005) . They found that the leading balance in SMDs involves import of moisture through convergence and loss of moisture through condensation and precipitation. Their study, however, only considered the Eulerian temporal tendency in moisture over a limited domain near the center of the vortex. Thus, their study does not take into account the propagation of the moisture anomalies. However

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Matthew A. Janiga and Chidong Zhang

the moisture budget. In tropical regions with high rain rates, there is often a large cancellation between the drying due to Q 2 and the large-scale vertical moisture advection ( Chikira 2014 ). In such regimes, the vertical velocity can be related to Q 1 by assuming that vertical potential temperature advection and Q 1 are balanced. This is closely related to the WTG and weak pressure gradient or damped-wave approximations, which have been applied interactively within several CRM studies in

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Jun-Chao Yang, Yu Zhang, Ingo Richter, and Xiaopei Lin

warm pool, the region enclosing the warmest waters (>28.5°C) in the northwestern tropical Atlantic (NWTA), can influence the TAPMORT on interannual time scale. They found that a larger Atlantic warm pool will inhibit the flow of easterly trade winds and hence weaken the TAPMORT, and vice versa. Schmittner et al. (2000) revealed that the interannual El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability modulates the tropical Atlantic moisture budget, which should be associated with interannual TAPMORT

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