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V. Praveen, S. Sandeep, and R. S. Ajayamohan

1. Introduction Tropical cyclones are high-impact weather systems that form during the summer season and often bring havoc to coastal regions. A distinct feature of the northern Indian Ocean, as compared to the rest of the tropical oceans, is that the strong vertical shear of the monsoon winds prevents tropical cyclone development during the summer monsoon season. Nevertheless relatively weak cyclonic storms form during the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) season, and they play a crucial role in

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Xingchao Chen, Olivier M. Pauluis, L. Ruby Leung, and Fuqing Zhang

1. Introduction The Indian summer monsoon (ISM) is the most striking manifestation of the seasonal cycle associated with a massive shift in the planetary-scale atmospheric overturning on Earth ( Trenberth et al. 2000 ). It is characterized by extensive rainfall from June to September across the Indian subcontinent and changes in the wind pattern over the Indian Ocean. It is a central aspect of life for over 1 billion people. There is a strong link between the ISM rainfall and the Indian

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Kyong-Hwan Seo, Jung Ok, Jun-Hyeok Son, and Dong-Hyun Cha

1. Introduction The East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is one of the most important large-scale circulation systems that impact the climate and weather in the East Asian region. Future projections of precipitation associated with the EASM in a warming climate have been examined in many previous studies using coupled models from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)'s third phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3) (e.g., Kitoh and Uchiyama 2006 ; Min et al. 2006

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Kyong-Hwam Seo, Jun-Hyeok Son, June-Yi Lee, and Hyo-Seok Park

1. Introduction The East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is one of the most important large-scale circulation systems, significantly influencing weather and climate over the whole globe. In particular, understanding of the EASM is crucial for agricultural, industrial, environmental, and recreational activities, as well as for the prevention of natural disasters. The EASM exhibits significant interannual variation, of which the dominant factors are not fully understood ( Lau et al. 2000 ; Wu et al

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Kyong-Hwan Seo and Jung Ok

1. Introduction East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) projections for future climate changes, determined using phase 3 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3) models, have been investigated in many previous studies (e.g., Kitoh and Uchiyama 2006 ; Min et al. 2006 ; Zhou and Yu 2006 ; Kripalani et al. 2007 ; Lu et al. 2007 ; Chen and Sun 2009 ; Lu and Fu 2010 ; Kusunoki et al. 2011 ; Kusunoki and Arakawa 2012 ). The monsoonal rainfall in the entire East Asian region is expected

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Jodi C. Beattie and Russell L. Elsberry

1. Introduction The monsoon depression is one of the synoptic-scale circulations that are favorable for tropical cyclone formation over the western North Pacific; indeed, Lander (2004) suggests that almost two-thirds of these monsoon depressions transition to tropical cyclones. Therefore, a better understanding of the formation of the monsoon depression is expected to improve the forecast skill in identifying the regions of deep convection that would most likely lead to the formation of a

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K. Sujith, Subodh Kumar Saha, Samir Pokhrel, Anupam Hazra, and Hemantkumar S. Chaudhari

1. Introduction The Indian summer monsoon is an interhemispheric circulation system, coupled with the land, atmosphere, and ocean, and contributes about 80% of the annual rainfall over India ( Goswami 1998 ; Webster et al. 1998 ; Chakraborty et al. 2002 ; Gadgil and Kumar 2006 ; Ding and Sikka 2006 ). It is also a primary source of freshwater required for agriculture and industry. The interannual standard deviation of the Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) is about 10% of its

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Liguang Wu, Huijun Zong, and Jia Liang

1. Introduction The summertime monsoon circulation over the tropical western North Pacific (WNP) and South China Sea (SCS) is usually characterized with a low-level monsoon trough, in which westerly monsoon winds lie in the equatorward portion while easterly trade winds exist on the poleward side ( Holland 1995 ). The monsoon trough is closely associated with a large fraction of tropical cyclone (TC) formation in the WNP and SCS ( Gray 1968 ; Ramage 1974 ; Briegel and Frank 1997 ; Ritchie

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Katrina Grantz, Balaji Rajagopalan, Martyn Clark, and Edith Zagona

1. Introduction and background The North American monsoon system (NAMS) is the large-scale atmospheric circulation system that drives the dramatic increase in rainfall experienced in the desert southwest United States and northwestern Mexico during the summer months of July, August, and September. These summer thunderstorms typically begin in early July and last until mid-September and can account for as much as 50%–70% of the annual precipitation in the arid region ( Carleton et al. 1990

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Ding Ma, William Boos, and Zhiming Kuang

1. Introduction The boreal summer South Asian monsoon is a major feature of the general circulation of the Earth’s atmosphere and affects the lives of billions of people (e.g., Lau et al. 2006 ). The thermally direct monsoon circulation is caused by the thermodynamic contrast between the Eurasian continent and the Indian Ocean. In particular, the Tibetan Plateau has for decades been thought to drive this large-scale monsoon by acting as an elevated heat source ( Yeh et al. 1957 ). The sensible

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