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Rebecca Mott and Michael Lehning

understood that topographic features induce characteristic wind flow patterns on a local scale, such as crest speedup, flow channeling, flow blocking, updraft and downdraft zones, or flow separation downwind of a ridge crest ( Lewis et al. 2008 ). The modification of the near-surface wind field results in preferred deposition of precipitation in the leeward slopes of mountain ridges, discussed in detail by Lehning et al. (2008) . In the case of snow, preferential deposition is defined as the spatially

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Jing Chen, Ji Wang, Runsheng Lin, and Li Lu

stations in real time. We quality controlled these data following three primary steps: 1) de-duplication: limited by power shortage in the high mountain areas, the electronic data were transformed in two forms simultaneously to reducing data loss, that is, network and satellite. The duplicated records were deleted before utilization; 2) completion: a number of missing codes were added with help from the Beijing Meteorological Observation Center, the Yanqing Meteorological Service, and the Hebei

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Hikaru Komatsu, Hirofumi Hashimoto, Tomonori Kume, Nobuaki Tanaka, Natsuko Yoshifuji, Kyoichi Otsuki, Masakazu Suzuki, and Tomo’omi Kumagai

. Trees , 10 , 218 – 222 . Richardson , A. D. , X. Lee , and A. J. Friedland , 2004 : Microclimatology of treeline spruce-fir forests in mountains of the northeastern United States. Agric. For. Meteor. , 125 , 53 – 66 . Rolland , C. , 2003 : Spatial and seasonal variations of air temperature lapse rates in Alpine regions. J. Climate , 16 , 1032 – 1046 . Running , S. , R. Nemani , and R. Hungerford , 1987 : Extrapolation of synoptic meteorological data in mountainous

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John P. Gallagher, Ian G. McKendry, Anne Marie Macdonald, and W. Richard Leaitch

conjunction with meteorological data to investigate the question of airmass discrimination for the Whistler Mountain Observatory. Meteorological explanations are posited for observed seasonal and diurnal patterns in aerosol concentration. This study follows on the work of Nseir (2007) , who examined diurnal cycles of temperature, water vapor, and ozone at the Whistler site for two springtime periods in 2005 and 2006. In that study, an atmospheric stability parameter was used to estimate daily transition

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J. Li, X. Gao, and S. Sorooshian

-scale hydrologic variability that result from interactions between climate and human influences. The upper Rio Grande basin is a typical case. The Rio Grande has its headwaters in the San Juan Mountains in Colorado, runs southward through New Mexico, continues through western Texas, and then becomes the border between Texas and Mexico, until it finally flows into the Gulf of Mexico. The upper Rio Grande is the stretch from the headwaters to Fort Quitman, western Texas, before it turns into the U

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Pieter Groenemeijer, Christian Barthlott, Ulrich Corsmeier, Jan Handwerker, Martin Kohler, Christoph Kottmeier, Holger Mahlke, Andreas Wieser, Andreas Behrendt, Sandip Pal, Marcus Radlach, Volker Wulfmeyer, and Jörg Trentmann

. During PRINCE, a number of new measurement strategies were deployed. First, two lidars were positioned on the summit of a mountain. A scanning Doppler lidar measured the wind field, while a scanning rotational Raman lidar measured atmospheric temperature, the particle backscatter coefficient, and the extinction coefficient at a wavelength of 355 nm. Second, a research aircraft was equipped with instruments in order to receive real-time data of meteorological satellites and data from ground

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Domingo Muñoz-Esparza, Hyeyum Hailey Shin, Teddie L. Keller, Kyoko Ikeda, Robert D. Sharman, Matthias Steiner, Jeff Rawdon, and Gary Pokodner

density-altitude differences—can contribute to hazardous conditions for aviation over complex terrain. In light of these aspects, the current work investigates the potential benefit of incorporating meteorological effects into the precipitous terrain classification. To that end, we utilize turbulence and meteorological observations combined with high-resolution weather forecasts, focused on a region covering the Rocky Mountains of Colorado. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. In section 2

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correlating the meteorological and soil conditions with the produc-tion of staple crops. the resu1t.s will be of widespread importance, and will pave the way for similar studies by the experiment stations in vari-ous countries.MOUNTAIN STATIONS FOR METEOROLOGY.The observatory on the summit of Ben Nevis and the corre-sponding low-level observatory at Fort William were estab-lished in 1883 at a time when the importance of obtaining sys-tematic records of what is called the free atmosphere, at a con

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G. W. K. Moore, J. L. Semple, and G. Hoyland

Re-Analysis (ERA-40; Uppala et al. 2005 ) to investigate the meteorological conditions during the 1996 storm. They found that the storm was associated with a drop in summit barometric pressure of approximately 6 hPa and that it was the result of the juxtaposition of two jet streaks—regions of high winds embedded in the subtropical jet stream—that led to an outbreak of organized convective activity that engulfed the mountain. A surface temperature reconstruction based on glacier-length data

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Christophe Etienne, Anthony Lehmann, Stéphane Goyette, Juan-Ignacio Lopez-Moreno, and Martin Beniston

by wind storms into monetary terms ( Klawa and Ulbrich 2003 ). In mountain areas such as the Alps, wind flows show high spatial variability. As discussed by Barry (1992) or Mortensen and Petersen (1998) , topography has a strong influence on the estimation of wind speeds. Ridge crests, deep valleys, or other irregular landscapes are important orographic features capable of exerting an influence on boundary layer flows. Many local climate phenomena as well as natural channeling effects or

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