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Rong Zhang
,
Thomas L. Delworth
,
Rowan Sutton
,
Daniel L. R. Hodson
,
Keith W. Dixon
,
Isaac M. Held
,
Yochanan Kushnir
,
John Marshall
,
Yi Ming
,
Rym Msadek
,
Jon Robson
,
Anthony J. Rosati
,
MingFang Ting
, and
Gabriel A. Vecchi

and Atlantic hurricane activity ( Goldenberg et al. 2001 ; Knight et al. 2006 ; Zhang and Delworth 2006 ). In particular, tropical North Atlantic surface warming coincided with above-normal Atlantic hurricane activity during the 1950s, 1960s, and the recent decade. These multidecadal NASST variations are often thought to be associated with Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) variability ( Delworth and Mann 2000 ; Latif et al. 2004 ; Knight et al. 2005 ). On the other hand, some

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Annika Drews
and
Richard J. Greatbatch

1. Introduction North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) varies coherently on the basin scale on multidecadal time scales, a phenomenon known as the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) or Atlantic multidecadal variability (AMV) ( Schlesinger and Ramankutty 1994 ; Enfield et al. 2001 ; Sutton and Hodson 2005 ; Knight et al. 2005 ; Dima and Lohmann 2007 ). It is known that the AMV has an impact on weather and climate predominantly in the Northern Hemisphere, for example, North

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Yi-Peng Guo
,
Zhe-Min Tan
, and
Xu Chen

variables analyzed unless otherwise stated. To apply an 11-yr running average for the first and last 5 years, the time series are extended by another 5 years before the start year and after the end year with symmetric conditions: for instance, the added 5 years’ values before the start year are the same as that of the second to the sixth year, but with reversed sequence. The period 1951–2019 is selected in this study, which is long enough to analyze the multidecadal variability. June–November (JJASON

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Xidong Wang
,
Chunzai Wang
,
Liping Zhang
, and
Xin Wang

significant decrease, which is partly related to the decadal variation of the TC genesis frequency in the southeastern part of the WNP. Most of the previous studies mentioned above focused on influence of climate factors on the genesis, tracks, duration, and intensity of TCs. Few studies have attempted to examine TC RI variability on multidecadal time scales and associate it with oceanic and atmospheric signals in the WNP. If there are multidecadal fluctuations in TC RI events, it is of key importance to

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Liping Zhang
,
Thomas L. Delworth
,
William Cooke
,
Hugues Goosse
,
Mitchell Bushuk
,
Yushi Morioka
, and
Xiaosong Yang

1. Introduction Multidecadal to centennial variability in the Southern Ocean (SO) is difficult to detect and characterize due to limited in situ observations. Paleoclimate tree ring records over adjacent continents do show long time scale variations in the past hundreds of years (e.g., Cook et al. 2000 ; Le Quesne et al. 2009 ). These low-frequency variations are seen in multiple climate models, including the Kiel Climate Model (e.g., Martin et al. 2013 ; Latif et al. 2013 ), Geophysical

Open access
Aaron F. Z. Levine
,
Dargan M. W. Frierson
, and
Michael J. McPhaden

1. Introduction The Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO), defined by changes in the SSTs over the North Atlantic ( Enfield et al. 2001 ), has been implicated in large-scale, multidecadal climate variability ( Kerr 2000 ). Over the period of instrumental record, changes in the AMO have been linked to changes in the Northern Hemisphere surface temperature ( Semenov et al. 2010 ) and hydrology ( Enfield et al. 2001 ). Subsequent studies with climate models have confirmed the important role of

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Simon Borlace
,
Wenju Cai
, and
Agus Santoso

consistent with those expected as a result of greenhouse warming ( Yeh et al. 2009 ) and hence suggest that natural variability modulates ENSO amplitude over multidecadal time scales. An 1100-yr paleo-proxy time series from tree rings shows that ENSO amplitude varies over a quasi-regular cycle of 50–90 yr ( Li et al. 2011 ). It is accepted that study of variability of ENSO amplitude requires a time series longer than 500 yr ( Wittenberg 2009 ). Furthermore, understanding the underlying processes demands

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Baolan Wu
and
Lixiao Xu

SSTF in recent decades. Yet it is still unclear whether the STFs have east–west asymmetric variability on multidecadal time scales and, if so, what causes the difference. Previous studies have suggested that the interannual variability of the STFs is mainly associated with wind forcing ( Qiu and Chen 2010 ), while the decadal to multidecadal variability of the STFs is primarily related to mode waters ( Xie et al. 2011 ; Kobashi et al. 2021 ; Wu et al. 2022 ). Here, we focus on multidecadal time

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Leela M. Frankcombe
and
Henk A. Dijkstra

1. Introduction Natural variability of the climate of the Arctic Ocean on decadal to multidecadal time scales is a topic that has recently begun to receive a large amount of attention. Anthropogenic climate change appears to be having its greatest effects in the Arctic, yet we have so far been unable to accurately predict the rates of the changes using state-of-the-art climate models ( Stroeve et al. 2007 ). The 2007 minimum in sea ice extent, for example, was not adequately projected by any of

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Frederic S. Castruccio
,
Yohan Ruprich-Robert
,
Stephen G. Yeager
,
Gokhan Danabasoglu
,
Rym Msadek
, and
Thomas L. Delworth

the Arctic sea ice decline before the late 1990s ( Rigor et al. 2002 ). However, the recent more neutral AO may not be a key driver for later sea ice changes ( Maslanik et al. 2007 ). Other patterns of atmospheric variability, such as the Arctic dipole (AD) ( Wu et al. 2006 ) or the Pacific–North American pattern (PNA) ( L’Heureux et al. 2008 ), may play a more important role. In contrast, the influence on sea ice of slow modes of variability like the Atlantic multidecadal variability (AMV) is

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