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Rong Zhang, Thomas L. Delworth, Rowan Sutton, Daniel L. R. Hodson, Keith W. Dixon, Isaac M. Held, Yochanan Kushnir, John Marshall, Yi Ming, Rym Msadek, Jon Robson, Anthony J. Rosati, MingFang Ting, and Gabriel A. Vecchi

and Atlantic hurricane activity ( Goldenberg et al. 2001 ; Knight et al. 2006 ; Zhang and Delworth 2006 ). In particular, tropical North Atlantic surface warming coincided with above-normal Atlantic hurricane activity during the 1950s, 1960s, and the recent decade. These multidecadal NASST variations are often thought to be associated with Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) variability ( Delworth and Mann 2000 ; Latif et al. 2004 ; Knight et al. 2005 ). On the other hand, some

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Aaron F. Z. Levine, Dargan M. W. Frierson, and Michael J. McPhaden

1. Introduction The Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO), defined by changes in the SSTs over the North Atlantic ( Enfield et al. 2001 ), has been implicated in large-scale, multidecadal climate variability ( Kerr 2000 ). Over the period of instrumental record, changes in the AMO have been linked to changes in the Northern Hemisphere surface temperature ( Semenov et al. 2010 ) and hydrology ( Enfield et al. 2001 ). Subsequent studies with climate models have confirmed the important role of

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Annika Drews and Richard J. Greatbatch

1. Introduction North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) varies coherently on the basin scale on multidecadal time scales, a phenomenon known as the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) or Atlantic multidecadal variability (AMV) ( Schlesinger and Ramankutty 1994 ; Enfield et al. 2001 ; Sutton and Hodson 2005 ; Knight et al. 2005 ; Dima and Lohmann 2007 ). It is known that the AMV has an impact on weather and climate predominantly in the Northern Hemisphere, for example, North

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Leela M. Frankcombe and Henk A. Dijkstra

1. Introduction Natural variability of the climate of the Arctic Ocean on decadal to multidecadal time scales is a topic that has recently begun to receive a large amount of attention. Anthropogenic climate change appears to be having its greatest effects in the Arctic, yet we have so far been unable to accurately predict the rates of the changes using state-of-the-art climate models ( Stroeve et al. 2007 ). The 2007 minimum in sea ice extent, for example, was not adequately projected by any of

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Xidong Wang, Chunzai Wang, Liping Zhang, and Xin Wang

significant decrease, which is partly related to the decadal variation of the TC genesis frequency in the southeastern part of the WNP. Most of the previous studies mentioned above focused on influence of climate factors on the genesis, tracks, duration, and intensity of TCs. Few studies have attempted to examine TC RI variability on multidecadal time scales and associate it with oceanic and atmospheric signals in the WNP. If there are multidecadal fluctuations in TC RI events, it is of key importance to

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Liping Zhang, Thomas L. Delworth, William Cooke, Hugues Goosse, Mitchell Bushuk, Yushi Morioka, and Xiaosong Yang

1. Introduction Multidecadal to centennial variability in the Southern Ocean (SO) is difficult to detect and characterize due to limited in situ observations. Paleoclimate tree ring records over adjacent continents do show long time scale variations in the past hundreds of years (e.g., Cook et al. 2000 ; Le Quesne et al. 2009 ). These low-frequency variations are seen in multiple climate models, including the Kiel Climate Model (e.g., Martin et al. 2013 ; Latif et al. 2013 ), Geophysical

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Cristina Peña-Ortiz, David Barriopedro, and Ricardo García-Herrera

increasing severity of summer weather. In addition to a warming long-term trend, multidecadal variations of the European summer climate have been reported (e.g., Sutton and Hodson 2005 ) and linked to a spatially coherent mode of variability in North Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs), often referred to as the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO; Enfield et al. 2001 ). Persistent positive phases of the AMO, corresponding to warm North Atlantic SSTs, occurred during the pre-1900, 1930s–1950s

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Simon Borlace, Wenju Cai, and Agus Santoso

consistent with those expected as a result of greenhouse warming ( Yeh et al. 2009 ) and hence suggest that natural variability modulates ENSO amplitude over multidecadal time scales. An 1100-yr paleo-proxy time series from tree rings shows that ENSO amplitude varies over a quasi-regular cycle of 50–90 yr ( Li et al. 2011 ). It is accepted that study of variability of ENSO amplitude requires a time series longer than 500 yr ( Wittenberg 2009 ). Furthermore, understanding the underlying processes demands

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Dong Si, Aixue Hu, Huijun Wang, and Qingchen Chao

1. Introduction Conventional wisdom indicates that the Atlantic multidecadal variability (AMV) is an internally generated variability associated with the multidecadal fluctuations of oceanic processes, such as the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) ( Delworth et al. 1993 ; Delworth and Mann 2000 ; Latif et al. 2004 ; Knight et al. 2005 ; Zhang et al. 2016 ), and with stochastic atmospheric processes (e.g., Clement et al. 2015 ) and air–sea coupling ( Wills et al. 2019

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Dong Eun Lee, Mingfang Ting, Nicolas Vigaud, Yochanan Kushnir, and Anthony G. Barnston

multidecadal variability (AMV), which refers to the low-frequency variation of basinwide SST extending from the subpolar North Atlantic into the tropics in what resembles a horseshoe pattern ( Fig. 1a ), has been implicated as a possible factor that can exert a long-term impact on precipitation variability in the continental United States ( Enfield et al. 2001 ; Sutton and Hodson 2005 ). Several previous studies have explored the AMV modulation of the ENSO impact over North America ( Enfield et al. 2001

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