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Kunpeng Yang
,
Haijun Yang
,
Yang Li
, and
Qiong Zhang

study using the Kiel Climate Model (KCM), Park and Latif (2008) found an AMOC oscillation with a period of 300–400 years. Their follow-up studies ( Martin et al. 2013 , 2015 ) proposed that this AMOC MCO originates from the Southern Ocean. When the AMOC is anomalously strong, heat content of the mid-depth water in the Weddell Sea increases due to strengthened southward transport of the warmer North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). Deep convection in the Southern Ocean is triggered when the mid

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Xiaoming Zhai
and
Luke Sheldon

1. Introduction Warming of the North Atlantic over the past 50 years has not been uniform (e.g., Levitus et al. 2000 , 2005a ; Lozier et al. 2008 ). For example, using data from hydrographic stations, Lozier et al. (2008) found in the North Atlantic that the tropics and subtropics have warmed but the subpolar ocean has cooled (see also Levitus et al. 2000 ). These observations suggest that, instead of a diffusive process from the surface, ocean heat content change is largely a consequence

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J. S. Kenigson
and
M.-L. Timmermans

1. Introduction a. The Nordic seas in the climate system The Nordic seas (i.e., Greenland, Iceland, and Norwegian Seas; Fig. 1 ), a transitional region between the Arctic Ocean north of Fram Strait and the North Atlantic Ocean, are a site of key climate processes. Deep convective mixing, a driver of the thermohaline circulation, takes place in the Nordic seas where wintertime air–sea heat fluxes destabilize the stratification and produce deep mixed layers ( Nilsen and Falck 2006 ); further

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M. Benkiran
and
E. Greiner

and the experimental set up are presented in section 3 . The results are presented in section 4 , and a discussion follows in section 5 . Conclusions are summarized in the last section. 2. Description of the assimilation system Mercator Océan has operated a multivariate multiple data assimilation system in real time since January 2004 ( http://www.mercator-ocean.fr ). This system, called PSY1v2, provides an oceanic large-scale analysis and a 2-week forecast of the North and tropical Atlantic

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Shenfu Dong
,
Susan L. Hautala
, and
Kathryn A. Kelly

western North Atlantic Ocean is the Subtropical Mode Water (STMW), a vertically homogeneous water mass between the seasonal thermocline and the permanent thermocline. The STMW is formed by deep convection just south of the Gulf Stream (GS) during winter and contains the memory of its interaction with the atmosphere. After its formation, the STMW is advected by the GS and its recirculation gyre. The net heat loss to the atmosphere has been considered an important factor for forming and sustaining the

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M. F. de Jong
,
S. S. Drijfhout
,
W. Hazeleger
,
H. M. van Aken
, and
C. A. Severijns

play an important role in the northwestern North Atlantic Ocean, cannot be resolved. Surface fluxes, which have a poor observational coverage over the ocean, have a major role in local adjustment of water masses and the formation of mode waters ( Brambilla and Talley 2008 ). The surface waters are furthermore dependent on a combination of sea ice melt and advection. Convection plumes (∼1 km) and convection areas (∼100 km) are crucial in intermediate water mass formation ( Marshall and Schott 1999

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Stephen Yeager
,
Alicia Karspeck
,
Gokhan Danabasoglu
,
Joe Tribbia
, and
Haiyan Teng

project ( Griffies et al. 2009 ). A complication, however, is that the bias correction issue becomes a critically important part of the analysis. A recent report by the Climate Variability and Predictability Decadal Climate and Prediction Panel ( CLIVAR 2011 ) recommends a technique for bias correction of CMIP5 decadal prediction experiments, which we adopt and describe below in section 3 . An abrupt warming of the subpolar gyre (SPG) region of the North Atlantic Ocean in the 1990s has been

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Casey R. Patrizio
,
Panos J. Athanasiadis
,
Claude Frankignoul
,
Doroteaciro Iovino
,
Simona Masina
,
Luca Famooss Paolini
, and
Silvio Gualdi

1. Introduction Heat and momentum exchanges between the atmosphere and ocean are critical for establishing the mean climate but are also related to climate variability across a range of spatiotemporal scales in both media. In the North Atlantic, such atmosphere–ocean variability is often associated with large-scale climate anomalies on subseasonal to multidecadal time scales that can impact the climates of surrounding regions (e.g., Knight et al. 2006 ; Zhang and Delworth 2006 ). Global

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Daniel E. Amrhein
,
Dafydd Stephenson
, and
LuAnne Thompson

with turbulent fluxes. Within these regimes, clarifying dominant pathways of atmospheric influence on the ocean has the potential to provide parsimonious descriptions of variability in a high-dimensional coupled system. A traditional paradigm for exploring dominant drivers of ocean variability is to identify dynamically important modes of variability in the atmosphere and then to evaluate their impact on the ocean. In the North Atlantic, much of the atmospheric variability on seasonal and longer

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Zeng-Zhen Hu
,
Arun Kumar
,
Bohua Huang
,
Yan Xue
,
Wanqiu Wang
, and
Bhaskar Jha

1. Introduction During the period from the summer of 2009 to the summer of 2010, a strong warming tendency of sea surface temperature (SST) occurred in the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic Ocean ( Fig. 1a ), ending with a record-breaking SST anomaly (SSTA) for several months in the hurricane Main Development Region (MDR: 10°–20°N, 20°–85°W; see the rectangular box in Fig. 2f ). The SSTA in the MDR reached 0.94°C for the mean from June to August (JJA) 2010 and was a record value since

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