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Antti T. Pessi
and
Steven Businger

1. Introduction Accurate knowledge of the distribution and evolution of moisture and latent heating fields associated with deep convection is essential for accurate numerical forecasts of cyclogenesis (e.g., Anthes et al. 1983 ; Brennan and Lackmann 2005 ). The paucity of in situ observations over the North Pacific Ocean can lead to significant errors in the initial moisture fields’ input into operational numerical models. These observational errors in turn often lead to large forecast errors

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Yuko M. Okumura
,
Clara Deser
,
Aixue Hu
,
Axel Timmermann
, and
Shang-Ping Xie

, large SST variations closely related to the Greenland records are reported in different parts of the North Pacific ( Thunell and Mortyn 1995 ; Hendy and Kennett 1999 ; Kienast and McKay 2001 ) and the Okhotsk Sea ( Harada et al. 2006 ). Enhanced ventilation during the cold periods is also suggested in the analyses of ocean sediments from the Santa Barbara Basin ( Behl and Kennett 1996 ) and the northeast Pacific ( Lund and Mix 1998 ). The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC; a

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Ling Ling Liu
,
Rui Xin Huang
, and
Fan Wang

. This paper is organized as follows. The data, the classical Lagrangian method, and the Eulerian method are depicted in detail in section 2 . In section 3 , a modified method in Lagrangian framework for subduction, which takes into consideration the beta spiral structure in the ocean, is proposed and applied to the North Pacific Ocean. Section 4 is focused on the annual obduction rate. Finally, section 5 is the summary and discussion. 2. Data and methods a. Data SODA version 2.2.4 is

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Anthony E. Morrison
,
Steven T. Siems
, and
Michael J. Manton

numerical simulations suggested that such clouds should readily exist widely across the Southern Ocean (particularly to the west of Tasmania). As a point of comparison, the Southern Ocean region is compared with an equivalent region of the North Pacific. During winter, the clouds of the North Pacific free troposphere are largely defined by the midlatitude cyclones that create the storm track, much as they are year-round in the Southern Ocean. Naud et al. (2006) employed Moderate Resolution Imaging

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Chia Chou
and
Yu-Chien Hsueh

1. Introduction The northward propagation of intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) is commonly found over the Indian Ocean (IO) and the western North Pacific (WNP) during the boreal summer (e.g., Yasunari 1981 ; Krishnamurti and Subrahmanyam 1982 ; Lau and Chan 1986 ; Annamalai and Slingo 2001 ; Goswami 2005 ; Hsu 2005 ). To explain the northward-propagating ISOs, several mechanisms have been proposed (e.g., Wang and Xie 1997 ; Hsu et al. 2004 ; Jiang et al. 2004 ; Goswami 2005 ; Wang et

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Tatsuo Suzuki
and
Masayoshi Ishii

to local changes in the vertical density structure. Suzuki and Ishii (2011a) reported that regional sea level trends of the North Pacific in recent decades are associated with dynamical responses to wind forcing and substantial water mass density changes. In particular, density changes in subtropical mode water (STMW), which is a prominent upper-ocean water mass on the southern side of the Kuroshio and the Kuroshio Extension (KE; Hanawa and Talley 2001 ), cause an increase in positive sea

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Yi-Chia Hsin

1. Introduction Across the tropical North Pacific Ocean, the North Equatorial Current (NEC) and northern branch of the South Equatorial Current (SECN) flow to the west at 10°–20°N and 0°–5°N, respectively, while the North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) travels eastward in between ( Fig. 1 ). The three zonal-flowing currents form the major circulation system in the surface layer of the tropical North Pacific Ocean. The equatorial current system plays an important role in redistributing heat

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Yafang Zhong
and
Zhengyu Liu

multidecadal variability ( Delworth et al. 1993 ; Enfield and Mestas-Nunez 1999 ), there has been little study on the mechanism of the PMV. A few recent studies do indicate that the PMV arises from the Pacific Ocean. Through a comprehensive observational analysis, Deser et al. (2004) found a robust multidecadal linkage between the North Pacific and tropical Pacific. They inferred that the PMV originates from the tropical Pacific and then impacts the North Pacific through atmospheric teleconnection. In

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Bunmei Taguchi
,
Niklas Schneider
,
Masami Nonaka
, and
Hideharu Sasaki

Fig. 1 ). Once generated, the density-neutral spiciness anomalies act as passive tracers and are advected eastward by the background eastward mean currents. This hypothesis, derived from a low-resolution climate model that does not resolve important physics of the ocean mesoscale, remains to be tested with higher-resolution datasets. Fig . 1. Schematic summary of a hypothesis for spiciness generation in the North Pacific SAFZ, put forth by TS14 . The SAFZ is marked by a region of large gradients

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Bo Qiu
,
Shuiming Chen
,
Lixin Wu
, and
Shinichiro Kida

et al. 2013 ). As shown in Fig. 1 , the regional sea level trends can exceed by twice the 3.2 mm yr −1 value at various locations and their spatial patterns contain signals over a wide range of length scales. In the North Pacific Ocean, for example, relatively broad-scale regional sea level rises (drops) are detected in the tropical regions and in the central (eastern) extratropical regions. In contrast, the regional sea level trend signals have generally smaller meridional spatial scales in

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