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Lavinia Patara
,
Claus W. Böning
, and
Toste Tanhua

1. Introduction The transport of surface waters into the ocean interior (“ventilation”) is a key process for global budgets of heat, oxygen, nutrients, and carbon ( Sabine et al. 2004 ; Armour et al. 2016 ; Talley et al. 2016 ). The large inorganic carbon and heat storage capacity of the World Ocean is rate limited by the sluggish mixing between surface water and the interior ocean. A prominent region where ventilation of the ocean interior takes place is the midlatitude Southern Ocean, where

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R. J. Stouffer
,
J. L. Russell
,
R. L. Beadling
,
A. J. Broccoli
,
J. P. Krasting
,
S. Malyshev
, and
Z. Naiman

impacts the present-day oceanic mean state using three different coupled climate models. The results from the experiments highlight the impact that mountains exert on the oceanic mean state through changes in the surface wind stress field and buoyancy flux. Two of the models, ESM2Mb and ESM2G, are Earth system models (ESMs) developed by the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ( Dunne et al. 2012 , 2013 ). ESM2Mb and ESM2G use

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Qiuxian Li
,
Yiyong Luo
,
Jian Lu
, and
Fukai Liu

1. Introduction Given its vast capacity to store heat, the ocean can largely regulate Earth’s climate. As the climate warms, the ocean has absorbed more than 90% of the excess heat in the climate system since the 1970s ( Levitus et al. 2012 ; IPCC 2021 ), especially over the Southern Ocean, which has been recognized as the dominant region for ocean heat uptake ( Sen Gupta et al. 2009 ; Durack et al. 2014 ; Roemmich et al. 2015 ; Frölicher et al. 2015 ; Shi et al. 2018 ). Previous

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Zhenxia Long
and
Will Perrie

; Zhang and Zhang 2001 ; Serreze et al. 2007 ; Årthun and Schrum 2010 ; Smedsrud et al. 2010 ; Årthun et al. 2011 ). The strongest heat flux is about 500 W m −2 near the marginal ice zone in winter, which can cool the warm saline Atlantic water all the way to the ocean bottom ( Hakkinen and Cavalieri 1989 ). Moreover, the warm Atlantic water inflow keeps the southern Barents Sea largely ice free and increases air–sea interactions ( Helland-Hansen and Nansen 1909 ; Sandø et al. 2010

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Liping Zhang
and
Lixin Wu

1. Introduction Both observations and climate models indicate that the freshwater flux [defined as evaporation minus precipitation (EmP)] exhibits substantial changes as a consequence of global warming (e.g., Curry et al. 2003 ). Dai et al. (1997) demonstrated an increasing trend in the global mean precipitation over the land between 1900 and 1988. Wong et al. (1999) pointed out that the precipitation over the high-latitude oceans increases notably between 1930 and 1980 and 1985 and 1994

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Kathryn L. Gunn
,
K McMonigal
,
Lisa M. Beal
, and
Shane Elipot

1. Introduction Observations of global ocean salinity patterns over the past 50 years have revealed an intensifying freshwater cycle, whereby wet regions have become wetter and dry regions drier (e.g., Durack et al. 2012 ; Yu et al. 2020 ). The Indian Ocean is characterized by heavy precipitation and runoff (i.e., freshwater gains) in its monsoonal northeastern and central regions and by evaporative conditions (i.e., freshwater losses) toward the south. More frequent extreme positive

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James T. Potemra
and
Niklas Schneider

1. Introduction The Indian Ocean receives heat and mass from the Pacific at a low latitude via the Indonesian throughflow (ITF; see Godfrey 1996 for a review). A potential consequence is that variations in Indian Ocean temperature may not be only a result of atmospheric forcing over the Indian Ocean, but also may be influenced by changes in the ITF. An important question, and the focus of this study, is to what degree low-frequency changes in upper-ocean temperatures in the Indian Ocean are

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Laifang Li
,
M. Susan Lozier
, and
Martha W. Buckley

1. Introduction The Atlantic multidecadal variability (AMV) is a mode of basinwide sea surface temperature (SST) variability over the North Atlantic Ocean with pronounced signals at decadal-to-multidecadal time scales ( Schlesinger and Ramankutty 1994 ; Kerr 2000 ). The AMV significantly affects global and regional climate [see review by Zhang et al. (2019) ] through its impact on the global-mean temperature ( Ting et al. 2009 ), the position of the Atlantic intertropical convergence zone

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Shijian Hu
,
Ying Zhang
,
Ming Feng
,
Yan Du
,
Janet Sprintall
,
Fan Wang
,
Dunxin Hu
,
Qiang Xie
, and
Fei Chai

1. Introduction Oceanic salinity plays an important role in the climate system due to its significant influence on oceanic stratification and barrier layers ( Sprintall and Tomczak 1992 ; Thompson et al. 2006 ; Balaguru et al. 2016 ) and ocean circulation ( Gordon et al. 2003 ; Feng et al. 2015 ; Hu and Sprintall 2016 , 2017a , b ), and has a close link to the global hydrological cycle ( Durack and Wijffels 2010 ; Durack et al. 2012 ). Investigation of ocean salinity variability and

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Woo Geun Cheon
,
Chang-Bong Cho
,
Arnold L. Gordon
,
Young Ho Kim
, and
Young-Gyu Park

1. Introduction The Southern Ocean (SO) surface water masses are known to sink to the bottom of the sea in two ways: 1) near-boundary convection, also called “continental shelf slope convection,” and 2) open-ocean deep convection ( Killworth 1983 ; Gordon 2014 ). In the Southern Hemisphere (SH), near-boundary convection is closely linked to the coastal polynya, also called “latent heat polynya” ( Curry and Webster 1999 ; Wadhams 2000 ), while open-ocean deep convection is closely linked to

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