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R. J. Stouffer, J. L. Russell, R. L. Beadling, A. J. Broccoli, J. P. Krasting, S. Malyshev, and Z. Naiman

impacts the present-day oceanic mean state using three different coupled climate models. The results from the experiments highlight the impact that mountains exert on the oceanic mean state through changes in the surface wind stress field and buoyancy flux. Two of the models, ESM2Mb and ESM2G, are Earth system models (ESMs) developed by the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ( Dunne et al. 2012 , 2013 ). ESM2Mb and ESM2G use

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Yue Wu, Xiao-Tong Zheng, Qi-Wei Sun, Yu Zhang, Yan Du, and Lin Liu

1. Introduction The upper ocean absorbs a large portion of solar radiation and presents marked dynamic and thermodynamic variations compared with the deep ocean. Upper-ocean salinity is an important footprint of the hydrological cycle and climate variability ( Roemmich et al. 1994 ; Durack and Wijffels 2010 ; Cheng et al. 2020 ). For example, salinity changes the upper-ocean stratification ( Sprintall and Tomczak 1992 ; de Boyer Montégut et al. 2007 ; Zhang et al. 2018a ) and further

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Xuan Shan, Zhao Jing, Bingrong Sun, Ping Chang, Lixin Wu, and Xiaohui Ma

1. Introduction Ocean mesoscale eddies are ubiquitous in the global ocean. They are remarkably vigorous in regions such as the Kuroshio and Oyashio and their extensions, the Gulf Stream and its extension, the Agulhas Return Current, and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current ( Chelton et al. 2011 ). Besides dominating oceanic kinetic energy ( Ferrari and Wunsch 2009 ), mesoscale eddies are key contributors in transporting heat and materials, leaving profound impacts on climate and biogeochemical

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Xiaolin Jin, Young-Oh Kwon, Caroline C. Ummenhofer, Hyodae Seo, Franziska U. Schwarzkopf, Arne Biastoch, Claus W. Böning, and Jonathon S. Wright

1. Introduction Recent work has demonstrated the important role of the Indian Ocean in modulating global climate variability ( SanchezGomez et al. 2008 ; Schott et al. 2009 ; Luo et al. 2012 ) and regional rainfall ( Ashok et al. 2001 ; Ummenhofer et al. 2009 ). In particular, the role of upper-ocean heat content (OHC) in the Indian Ocean has been highlighted in recent discussions of the so-called global warming hiatus ( Lee et al. 2015 ; Nieves et al. 2015 ). Several studies have linked

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Caroline C. Ummenhofer, Franziska U. Schwarzkopf, Gary Meyers, Erik Behrens, Arne Biastoch, and Claus W. Böning

1. Introduction Recent work has demonstrated the importance of eastern Indian Ocean variability for regional rainfall and drought for Australia ( Ummenhofer et al. 2008 , 2009b ), Indonesia ( Hendon 2003 ), and more widely across Southeast Asia (e.g., Sinha et al. 2011 ). Given the slower evolution of anomalies in the ocean, as opposed to the higher-frequency variability of the atmosphere and the associated benefits for seasonal predictions, an improved understanding of the drivers of eastern

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Laifang Li, M. Susan Lozier, and Martha W. Buckley

1. Introduction The Atlantic multidecadal variability (AMV) is a mode of basinwide sea surface temperature (SST) variability over the North Atlantic Ocean with pronounced signals at decadal-to-multidecadal time scales ( Schlesinger and Ramankutty 1994 ; Kerr 2000 ). The AMV significantly affects global and regional climate [see review by Zhang et al. (2019) ] through its impact on the global-mean temperature ( Ting et al. 2009 ), the position of the Atlantic intertropical convergence zone

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Zhenxia Long and Will Perrie

; Zhang and Zhang 2001 ; Serreze et al. 2007 ; Årthun and Schrum 2010 ; Smedsrud et al. 2010 ; Årthun et al. 2011 ). The strongest heat flux is about 500 W m −2 near the marginal ice zone in winter, which can cool the warm saline Atlantic water all the way to the ocean bottom ( Hakkinen and Cavalieri 1989 ). Moreover, the warm Atlantic water inflow keeps the southern Barents Sea largely ice free and increases air–sea interactions ( Helland-Hansen and Nansen 1909 ; Sandø et al. 2010

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Shijian Hu, Ying Zhang, Ming Feng, Yan Du, Janet Sprintall, Fan Wang, Dunxin Hu, Qiang Xie, and Fei Chai

1. Introduction Oceanic salinity plays an important role in the climate system due to its significant influence on oceanic stratification and barrier layers ( Sprintall and Tomczak 1992 ; Thompson et al. 2006 ; Balaguru et al. 2016 ) and ocean circulation ( Gordon et al. 2003 ; Feng et al. 2015 ; Hu and Sprintall 2016 , 2017a , b ), and has a close link to the global hydrological cycle ( Durack and Wijffels 2010 ; Durack et al. 2012 ). Investigation of ocean salinity variability and

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James T. Potemra and Niklas Schneider

1. Introduction The Indian Ocean receives heat and mass from the Pacific at a low latitude via the Indonesian throughflow (ITF; see Godfrey 1996 for a review). A potential consequence is that variations in Indian Ocean temperature may not be only a result of atmospheric forcing over the Indian Ocean, but also may be influenced by changes in the ITF. An important question, and the focus of this study, is to what degree low-frequency changes in upper-ocean temperatures in the Indian Ocean are

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Yu Hong, Ying Zhang, and Yan Du

1. Introduction Over recent decades, more than 90% of the additional energy in the climate system from anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions has been absorbed by and stored in the ocean, leading to ocean thermal expansion and sea level rise ( Church et al. 2011 ; Levitus et al. 2012 ). The Southern Ocean (SO) has been recognized as one of the key regions in absorbing and storing anthropogenic heat ( Durack et al. 2014 ; Roemmich et al. 2015 ; Shi et al. 2018 ). Observations reveal

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