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Christopher C. Chapman, Andrew McC. Hogg, Andrew E. Kiss, and Stephen R. Rintoul

. Note the logarithmic color scale. The approximate longitude of large topographic features is labeled. The purpose of this study is to explore the dynamics of storm tracks in the Southern Ocean and to develop a physical mechanism that explains their formation near large topographic features and the extension of high EKE farther downstream. a. A review of the dynamics of atmospheric storm tracks The persistence of high EKE in certain geographical regions presented a quandary to meteorologists

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P. Berloff, W. Dewar, S. Kravtsov, and J. McWilliams

coupled ocean–atmosphere phenomenon. Coupled ocean–atmosphere general circulation models (GCMs) do not yet discriminate between these alternatives: some models suggest that the coupling is important (e.g., Latif and Barnett 1994 ) while the others do not (e.g., Pierce et al. 2001 ). It is thus sensible to analyze idealized coupled and uncoupled models in order to get insight into potential mechanisms of the observed low-frequency variability. Recent advances in understanding coupled dynamics have

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Tomomichi Ogata, Shang-Ping Xie, Jian Lan, and Xiaotong Zheng

time. Despite the symmetric wind oscillation, SST is strongly skewed toward negative values in the SE-TIO. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2 describes the datasets used in this study. Sections 3 and 4 present results from observational analysis and ocean GCM sensitivity experiments, respectively, to show the importance of ocean dynamics. Sections 5 and 6 are the summary and discussions. 2. Data, models, and methods This study analyzes observational data and

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Fabian Schloesser

generally remain characterized by relatively weak stratification throughout the year ( Marshall and Schott 1999 ). Because of the requirement to balance vortex stretching in the potential vorticity (PV) budget, flow convergence in the ocean interior is strongly constrained ( Send and Marshall 1995 ), and it has been argued that the linkage between the convective sites and the large-scale circulation must be controlled by Rossby wave dynamics ( Talley 1979 ; Davey and Killworth 1989 ; Spall and Pickart

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Kurt L. Polzin

1. Introduction Conducted during March–July of 1973, the Mid-Ocean Dynamics Experiment (MODE) was one of the first concentrated studies of mesoscale ocean variability. The experiment featured arrays of moored current meters, neutrally buoyant floats, standard hydrographic station techniques, and the use of novel vertically profiling instrumentation. Vertical profiles of horizontal velocity obtained with a free-falling instrument using an electric field-sensing technique ( Sanford 1975

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Gengxin Chen, Weiqing Han, Yuanlong Li, Dongxiao Wang, and Michael J. McPhaden

been made in observing and understanding the Indian Ocean EUC, its spatial structure, seasonal-to-interannual variability, and the fundamental dynamics that govern the EUC and its variability remain unclear and have not yet been systematically investigated. Equatorial waves have been suggested to be involved in the EUC dynamics (e.g., Schott and McCreary 2001 ; Zhang et al. 2014 ), and they appear to be important in generating semiannual variability of subsurface zonal flow ( Iskandar et al. 2009

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P. Chang, T. Yamagata, P. Schopf, S. K. Behera, J. Carton, W. S. Kessler, G. Meyers, T. Qu, F. Schott, S. Shetye, and S.-P. Xie

1. Introduction The tropical ocean has been studied most extensively with regard to its role in the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. During the decade (1985– 94) of the Tropical Ocean–Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program, a concerted international research effort was undertaken primarily within the tropical Pacific Ocean with the goal of better describing ENSO as a coupled ocean–atmosphere phenomenon and understanding its underlying dynamics, as well as exploiting its predictability

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Chris Wilson, Bablu Sinha, and Richard G. Williams

ocean dynamics, orography, and their possible interaction are explored in terms of their effect on storm tracks in the Northern Hemisphere winter, as well as their modification of the surface thermodynamics. Four experiments are performed with a coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation model with intermediate complexity; the experiments either switch orographic forcing on or off, by having orography or flat continents of 1-m height, and either switch ocean dynamics on or off, by having a fully

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Melissa Bowen, Jordan Markham, Philip Sutton, Xuebin Zhang, Quran Wu, Nick T. Shears, and Denise Fernandez

investigation. In this study, we investigate the role of ocean dynamics in the upper-ocean heat balance, making use of long time series of surface ocean observations at the Leigh Marine Station in northern New Zealand and the subsurface temperature records along the XBT lines around the country ( Fig. 1 ). We first examine the interannual variability in sea surface temperature from the 49-yr record at Leigh. We show that this coastal temperature record is representative of a much wider area of the southwest

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Alexey V. Fedorov

, that is, the effective rate of damping of the large-scale oceanic motion—the damping rate directly related to energy dissipation in the tropical basin. That the ocean damping is indeed important for ENSO dynamics was clearly demonstrated by Thompson and Battisti (2000 , 2001 ) who used an intermediate coupled model to show that changes in damping rates can strongly affect the simulated spectrum of the interannual variability. In particular, when they increased the explicit damping coefficient in

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