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Oleg A. Saenko
,
Jonathan M. Gregory
,
Stephen M. Griffies
,
Matthew P. Couldrey
, and
Fabio Boeira Dias

mixing, while in the diathermal framework the role of temperature advection in the heat budget is not considered ( Walin 1982 ; Holmes et al. 2019 ). For our purposes of separating the role of ocean physics and dynamics at different scales, the applied projection of the Eulerian heat budget onto the position of potential density surfaces is as follows. Consider the whole ocean domain, so that Eq. (5) takes the form (9) All scales = Large + Meso + Small + Flux δ ⁡ ( z − η ) , where we assume

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Christopher C. Chapman
,
Andrew McC. Hogg
,
Andrew E. Kiss
, and
Stephen R. Rintoul

. Note the logarithmic color scale. The approximate longitude of large topographic features is labeled. The purpose of this study is to explore the dynamics of storm tracks in the Southern Ocean and to develop a physical mechanism that explains their formation near large topographic features and the extension of high EKE farther downstream. a. A review of the dynamics of atmospheric storm tracks The persistence of high EKE in certain geographical regions presented a quandary to meteorologists

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Yue Wu
,
Xiao-Tong Zheng
,
Qi-Wei Sun
,
Yu Zhang
,
Yan Du
, and
Lin Liu

influences ocean circulation ( Fedorov et al. 2004 ; Menezes et al. 2014 ; Nagura and Kouketsu 2018 ). Thus, it is essential to study the variation of upper-ocean salinity to understand the ocean environment. The upper-ocean salinity is mainly controlled by the freshwater exchange at the air–sea interface and ocean dynamics ( Yu 2011 ). Previous research demonstrated that sea surface salinity is mainly controlled by the surface freshwater flux, while salinity below the air–sea interface is also

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P. Berloff
,
W. Dewar
,
S. Kravtsov
, and
J. McWilliams

coupled ocean–atmosphere phenomenon. Coupled ocean–atmosphere general circulation models (GCMs) do not yet discriminate between these alternatives: some models suggest that the coupling is important (e.g., Latif and Barnett 1994 ) while the others do not (e.g., Pierce et al. 2001 ). It is thus sensible to analyze idealized coupled and uncoupled models in order to get insight into potential mechanisms of the observed low-frequency variability. Recent advances in understanding coupled dynamics have

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Xiaoting Yang
and
Eli Tziperman

Southern Ocean dynamics via boundary-intensified mixing . Eur. Phys. J. Plus , 135 , 375 , https://doi.org/10.1140/epjp/s13360-020-00375-y . 10.1140/epjp/s13360-020-00375-y Munday , D. R. , L. Allison , H. Johnson , and D. Marshall , 2011 : Remote forcing of the Antarctic circumpolar current by diapycnal mixing . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 38 , L08609 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL046849 . 10.1029/2011GL046849 Munday , D. R. , H. L. Johnson , and D. P. Marshall , 2013

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Tomomichi Ogata
,
Shang-Ping Xie
,
Jian Lan
, and
Xiaotong Zheng

time. Despite the symmetric wind oscillation, SST is strongly skewed toward negative values in the SE-TIO. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2 describes the datasets used in this study. Sections 3 and 4 present results from observational analysis and ocean GCM sensitivity experiments, respectively, to show the importance of ocean dynamics. Sections 5 and 6 are the summary and discussions. 2. Data, models, and methods This study analyzes observational data and

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Fabian Schloesser

generally remain characterized by relatively weak stratification throughout the year ( Marshall and Schott 1999 ). Because of the requirement to balance vortex stretching in the potential vorticity (PV) budget, flow convergence in the ocean interior is strongly constrained ( Send and Marshall 1995 ), and it has been argued that the linkage between the convective sites and the large-scale circulation must be controlled by Rossby wave dynamics ( Talley 1979 ; Davey and Killworth 1989 ; Spall and Pickart

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Kurt L. Polzin

1. Introduction Conducted during March–July of 1973, the Mid-Ocean Dynamics Experiment (MODE) was one of the first concentrated studies of mesoscale ocean variability. The experiment featured arrays of moored current meters, neutrally buoyant floats, standard hydrographic station techniques, and the use of novel vertically profiling instrumentation. Vertical profiles of horizontal velocity obtained with a free-falling instrument using an electric field-sensing technique ( Sanford 1975

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Xiaoting Yang
,
Eli Tziperman
, and
Kevin Speer

1. Introduction Intense currents along the western boundaries, for example, the Gulf Stream and underlying deep western boundary current in the North Atlantic Ocean, and similar western boundary currents in other basins, are striking features of the global ocean circulation. The ocean interior flow is, in contrast, typically dominated by an energetic eddy field, from which the large-scale gyres emerge in a time average. The basic dynamics of the western boundary currents have been explained by

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Gengxin Chen
,
Weiqing Han
,
Yuanlong Li
,
Dongxiao Wang
, and
Michael J. McPhaden

been made in observing and understanding the Indian Ocean EUC, its spatial structure, seasonal-to-interannual variability, and the fundamental dynamics that govern the EUC and its variability remain unclear and have not yet been systematically investigated. Equatorial waves have been suggested to be involved in the EUC dynamics (e.g., Schott and McCreary 2001 ; Zhang et al. 2014 ), and they appear to be important in generating semiannual variability of subsurface zonal flow ( Iskandar et al. 2009

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