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James A. Carton, Semyon A. Grodsky, and Hailong Liu

1. Introduction The oceanic mixed layer provides a connection between atmosphere and ocean and thus plays a central role in climate variability. For example, recent studies suggest that changes in the maximum depth of the mixed layer from one winter to the next may explain the reemergence of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and thus persistence of wintertime SST patterns ( Alexander et al. 2001 ; Timlin et al. 2002 ; Deser et al. 2003 ). Here we exploit the availability of a newly

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Taimoor Sohail, Bishakhdatta Gayen, and Andrew McC. Hogg

overlying lighter fluid) that in turn incites the development of rapid vertical convective plumes that communicate the surface forcing signal through depth. Vertical mixing during open-ocean convection leads to the homogenization of surface layer properties, creating a deep mixed layer ( Marshall and Schott 1999 ). The mixed layer (also referred to here as a mixed patch) plays a role in modulating the properties of dense overflows in the Southern Ocean and therefore the downwelling branch of the global

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Peter C. Chu and Chenwu Fan

1. Introduction Upper oceans are characterized by the existence of a vertically quasi-uniform layer of temperature ( T , isothermal layer) and density ( ρ , mixed layer). Underneath each layer, there exists another layer with a strong vertical gradient, such as the thermocline (in temperature) and pycnocline (in density). The intense vertical turbulent mixing near the surface causes the vertically quasi-uniform layer. The mixed layer is a key component in studies of climate and the link between

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Peng-Qi Huang, Xian-Rong Cen, Yuan-Zheng Lu, Shuang-Xi Guo, and Sheng-Qi Zhou

1. Introduction In oceans, the bottom mixed layer (BML) is the region adjacent to the ocean floor, where active mixing promoted by bottom shear and internal wave breaking leads to a vertically quasi-homogeneous profile in terms of the temperature, salinity, density, and other properties. Many interrelated physical, geochemical, and biological processes actively take place inside the BML, and these processes communicate with the ocean interior and underlying sediments ( Bowden 1978 ; Grant and

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Yign Noh, Gahyun Goh, Siegfried Raasch, and Micha Gryschka

1. Introduction Strong turbulence usually exists near the surface in the ocean mixed layer as a result of wave breaking (WB; e.g., Agrawal et al. 1992 ; Drennan et al. 1996 ), leading to the response to a surface stabilizing buoyancy flux that is fundamentally different from the atmospheric boundary layer. A diurnal thermocline (or “thermocline” hereafter) is formed at a certain depth during the day in the ocean mixed layer while a temperature gradient remains small near the surface. A strong

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Peng-Qi Huang, Yuan-Zheng Lu, and Sheng-Qi Zhou

1. Introduction The upper-ocean mixed layer (ML) is generally characterized by a vertically homogeneous profile of temperature, salinity, and density. This layer results from vertical mixing near the surface is promoted by various processes—wind stirring, waves, and turbulence—generated by vertical shear or nighttime convective mixing. Hence, the ML is important in establishing the mean state and variability of the World Ocean because it acts as a buffer between the atmosphere and the interior

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Jiayi Pan and Yujuan Sun

1. Introduction Typhoons are extremely high wind events, which inject substantial momentum into the ocean mixed layer for a short duration along their passages. Strong typhoon winds generate turbulent entrainment and upwelling that cause subsurface cold water to entrain and uplift into surface layer, resulting in cooling of surface water and deepening of upper mixed layer. The range of sea surface temperature (SST) drop was from 1° to 6°C ( Price 1981 ), and more intensive cooling of 9°C was

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Kyla Drushka, Janet Sprintall, Sarah T. Gille, and Susan Wijffels

1. Introduction The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) is a system of large-scale coupled patterns of atmospheric convection and winds that originate in the western tropical Indian Ocean, propagate eastward along the equator, and eventually die out in the eastern Pacific Ocean ( Madden and Julian 1972 ). Atmospheric MJO forcing exerts a profound influence on the mixed layer of the tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans through anomalous fluxes of heat, precipitation, and momentum (e.g., Hendon and

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Katsuya Toyama, Keith B. Rodgers, Bruno Blanke, Daniele Iudicone, Masao Ishii, Olivier Aumont, and Jorge L. Sarmiento

. 2008 ; Matsumoto et al. 2010 ). Thus, it will be important to identify and understand the processes that determine the rate at which CO 2 is taken up by the ocean as well as to monitor CO 2 uptake for the modern era. The exchange of C ant between the atmosphere and ocean interior is a two-step process. The first is associated with gas exchange across the air–sea interface, and the second is associated with the exchange of C ant across the base of the ocean’s mixed layer (ML base ), including

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Liam Brannigan, Yueng-Djern Lenn, Tom P. Rippeth, Elaine McDonagh, Teresa K. Chereskin, and Janet Sprintall

1. Introduction The surface layer of the ocean is a major component of the planetary boundary layer. Processes within the surface mixed layer determine the size and direction of momentum, heat, and tracer fluxes between the atmosphere and the ocean interior and so have implications for the planetary climate and its variability ( Sullivan and McWilliams 2010 ). These fluxes also play an important role in linking the oceanic and atmospheric carbon pools through regulation of the sea surface CO 2

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