Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 17,245 items for :

  • Oceanic mixed layer x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
James A. Carton, Semyon A. Grodsky, and Hailong Liu

1. Introduction The oceanic mixed layer provides a connection between atmosphere and ocean and thus plays a central role in climate variability. For example, recent studies suggest that changes in the maximum depth of the mixed layer from one winter to the next may explain the reemergence of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and thus persistence of wintertime SST patterns ( Alexander et al. 2001 ; Timlin et al. 2002 ; Deser et al. 2003 ). Here we exploit the availability of a newly

Full access
Taimoor Sohail, Bishakhdatta Gayen, and Andrew McC. Hogg

overlying lighter fluid) that in turn incites the development of rapid vertical convective plumes that communicate the surface forcing signal through depth. Vertical mixing during open-ocean convection leads to the homogenization of surface layer properties, creating a deep mixed layer ( Marshall and Schott 1999 ). The mixed layer (also referred to here as a mixed patch) plays a role in modulating the properties of dense overflows in the Southern Ocean and therefore the downwelling branch of the global

Free access
Peter C. Chu and Chenwu Fan

1. Introduction Upper oceans are characterized by the existence of a vertically quasi-uniform layer of temperature ( T , isothermal layer) and density ( ρ , mixed layer). Underneath each layer, there exists another layer with a strong vertical gradient, such as the thermocline (in temperature) and pycnocline (in density). The intense vertical turbulent mixing near the surface causes the vertically quasi-uniform layer. The mixed layer is a key component in studies of climate and the link between

Full access
Peng-Qi Huang, Xian-Rong Cen, Yuan-Zheng Lu, Shuang-Xi Guo, and Sheng-Qi Zhou

1. Introduction In oceans, the bottom mixed layer (BML) is the region adjacent to the ocean floor, where active mixing promoted by bottom shear and internal wave breaking leads to a vertically quasi-homogeneous profile in terms of the temperature, salinity, density, and other properties. Many interrelated physical, geochemical, and biological processes actively take place inside the BML, and these processes communicate with the ocean interior and underlying sediments ( Bowden 1978 ; Grant and

Full access
Yign Noh, Gahyun Goh, Siegfried Raasch, and Micha Gryschka

1. Introduction Strong turbulence usually exists near the surface in the ocean mixed layer as a result of wave breaking (WB; e.g., Agrawal et al. 1992 ; Drennan et al. 1996 ), leading to the response to a surface stabilizing buoyancy flux that is fundamentally different from the atmospheric boundary layer. A diurnal thermocline (or “thermocline” hereafter) is formed at a certain depth during the day in the ocean mixed layer while a temperature gradient remains small near the surface. A strong

Full access
Peng-Qi Huang, Yuan-Zheng Lu, and Sheng-Qi Zhou

1. Introduction The upper-ocean mixed layer (ML) is generally characterized by a vertically homogeneous profile of temperature, salinity, and density. This layer results from vertical mixing near the surface is promoted by various processes—wind stirring, waves, and turbulence—generated by vertical shear or nighttime convective mixing. Hence, the ML is important in establishing the mean state and variability of the World Ocean because it acts as a buffer between the atmosphere and the interior

Full access
Jiayi Pan and Yujuan Sun

1. Introduction Typhoons are extremely high wind events, which inject substantial momentum into the ocean mixed layer for a short duration along their passages. Strong typhoon winds generate turbulent entrainment and upwelling that cause subsurface cold water to entrain and uplift into surface layer, resulting in cooling of surface water and deepening of upper mixed layer. The range of sea surface temperature (SST) drop was from 1° to 6°C ( Price 1981 ), and more intensive cooling of 9°C was

Full access
Kyla Drushka, Janet Sprintall, Sarah T. Gille, and Susan Wijffels

1. Introduction The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) is a system of large-scale coupled patterns of atmospheric convection and winds that originate in the western tropical Indian Ocean, propagate eastward along the equator, and eventually die out in the eastern Pacific Ocean ( Madden and Julian 1972 ). Atmospheric MJO forcing exerts a profound influence on the mixed layer of the tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans through anomalous fluxes of heat, precipitation, and momentum (e.g., Hendon and

Full access
Lingling Liu, Yuanlong Li, and Fan Wang

1. Introduction The oceanic mixed layer, typically a layer with vertically uniform temperature, salinity, and density near the sea surface, is the media between the atmosphere and the ocean interior. The mixed layer depth (MLD), remarking the base of the surface mixed layer, is critical for the heat budget of the surface ocean and modulates sea surface temperature (SST) variability and atmospheric convection (e.g., Shinoda and Hendon 1998 ; Alexander et al. 2000 ; Dommenget and Latif 2002

Open access
Katsuya Toyama, Keith B. Rodgers, Bruno Blanke, Daniele Iudicone, Masao Ishii, Olivier Aumont, and Jorge L. Sarmiento

. 2008 ; Matsumoto et al. 2010 ). Thus, it will be important to identify and understand the processes that determine the rate at which CO 2 is taken up by the ocean as well as to monitor CO 2 uptake for the modern era. The exchange of C ant between the atmosphere and ocean interior is a two-step process. The first is associated with gas exchange across the air–sea interface, and the second is associated with the exchange of C ant across the base of the ocean’s mixed layer (ML base ), including

Full access